Fisheries

FISH FACTOR: Seafood trimmings have huge uncaptured value

State seafood marketers are rebranding fish parts as “specialty” products and mapping a path for millions more dollars in sales. Alaska’s fisheries produce more than 5 billion pounds of seafood each year. When all the fish is headed and gutted or filleted and all the crab legs are clustered, it leaves about 3 billion pounds of trimmings. Some is turned into meal and oil, but for the most part, the “gurry” is ground up and discharged into local waterways. “Whether that’s heads or guts, milt, or meal or oil or something else, it should be held in high regard,” said Andy Wink, a seafood economist formerly with the McDowell Group. “These are products that are out of our normal range but they are specialty items serving niche markets.” A new Analyses of Alaska Seafood Specialty Products report compiled for the Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute takes a look at uses for fish heads, oil, meal, internal organs, crab products, roe, herring fillets, arrowtooth flounder, spiny dogfish and skates. It makes the point that Alaska’s combined seafood catches, valued at roughly $2 billion at the docks and twice that when processors sell to their buyers, could be worth an additional $700 million or more if so called “specialty” products were added to the mix. Take fish heads, for example. Alaska produces about 1 billion pounds of fish heads, which account for most of the processing waste. Just 1 percent is sold as frozen heads, although a single large salmon head can fetch up to $5 a pound at Beijing supermarkets. Increasing the frozen market alone could add $100 million to processors’ sales, the report says. Alaska processors produce more than 90,000 tons of fish oil,most ofwhich is burned as a substitute for diesel, or is sold into lower value commodity markets. A study by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority showed that fish oil used as fuel rarely must be processed further and is 75 percent as efficient as No. 2 diesel. Fish oil used as fuel in Dutch Harbor offset 13.4 million gallons of diesel fuel in 2015 and saved operators $44 million. But the payback for fish oils could be much higher. Producing more refined oils for human consumption could help Alaska cash in on the $1 billion supplement market, the ASMI report says, adding that the value of refined fish oil to Alaska could increase to well over $30 million each year. Arrowtooth flounder numbers have exploded for several decades in the Gulf of Alaska; the fish literally blankets the bottom of the Gulf of Alaska and competes for food with dwindling halibut. But arrowtooth has little market value because its flesh turns mushy when cooked, While it is considered a nuisance species, the fish has many unhailed pluses, said Wink. The 81 million pounds caught each year mostly as bycatch in trawl fisheries could provide more protein to the pet food, aquaculture and livestock feed markets. And the pesky flatfish has a pricy trim. “There is this line of frill meat around the edge of the fish that is a very valuable sushi product called engawa – it can go for upwards of $10, even $20 per pound,” he said. Other highlights: • Nearly 70 million pounds of skates are captured by Alaska fishermen each year, but only about a third are frozen flat and stacked in 50-pound boxes for sale. The wings are prized by fish and chips makers in the U.K. and also in upscale French restaurants. Fishermen usually are paid about 30 cents per pound for skates by Alaska processors. • Crab shells have the potential to be one of Alaska’s most lucrative specialty products due to high demand in diverse industries. The exoskeleton of crabs contains chitin, one of the most abundant biodegradable materials in the world. Chitin has anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral properties and is insoluble in water. Uses include blood-clotting products, brewing refining agents, pool water clarifiers, food preservation, textile and fabric components, weight loss supplements and agricultural fungicide treatments. Prices for chitin and chitosan, a refined derivative, range from $10 to $3,000 per pound, depending on quality. • Alaska’s seafood catches produce 700 million pounds of internal organs such as milt, livers, stomachs and enzymes. Salmon milt is being used as a substitute for silicon in computers and in LED lighting. The ASMI report clearly lays out the challenges Alaska faces in fully tapping the specialty markets: industrial-scale production costs, additional labor, freezer/storage capacity, transportation, marketing – all compounded by the remoteness and the vast distances between fishing ports. A suggested solution, Wink said, could be a cooperative approach. “Co-ops could be a way to bring the raw material together, share the investment costs and hopefully, bring down the breakeven point on a lot of these things,” he said. The project goal was to provide a one-stop, user-friendly reference with key takeaways on volumes/values, uses, markets, challenges and opportunities for Alaska’s y seafood offerings. Wink likened it to trail blazing. “Some of these barely have trails. We want to widen the road so more Alaska specialty products so more can go out into the world,” he said. Side note: Andy Wink has left the McDowell Group after seven years to open a research and consulting practice that will focus primarily on the seafood industry. See more at www.winkresearch.com Taste o’ Tanners Kodiak’s Tanner crab fishery opened on Jan. 15 for the first time in four years and Alaskans can pre-order the tasty crab for pick up in Anchorage. “Our plan is to have the crab put up a few days after it opens, ship it to Anchorage and have it available at our office on January 29,” said Theresa Peterson, Kodiak Outreach Coordinator for the Alaska Marine Conservation Council. AMCC has offered seafood “Caught by Alaskans for Alaskans” since 2010. Its Catch 49 “boat to plate” program is a Community Supported Fishery that offers pre-orders of seasonal local catches and creates more awareness between customers and fishermen. “The story of where the seafood comes from and who caught it accompanies each box. It tells a little bit about the fishermen who are involved in the program, and provides pictures of the families and boats and recipes,” Peterson said. “It also tells about the fishery and its importance to the community of Kodiak.” The 400,000 pound Tanner fishery will go fast since the cod crash has pushed more boats towards crab, which has a reputation for being especially tasty. The Kodiak crab is the first of several Catch 49 offerings made throughout the year. “Thus far they include Bristol Bay sockeye salmon, Prince William Sound spot prawns, Kodiak jig caught rockfish, Norton Sound red king crab, Homer halibut and Taku River coho salmon,” Peterson said. The 17 pound Kodiak Tanner crab boxes sell for $275 and must be picked up at the AMCC office in Anchorage. Orders must be made by Jan. 17 at Catch49.org or call (907) 277-5357. Salmon ballots The grassroots group “Yes for Salmon” delivered ballot initiative petition booklets signed by an estimated 40,000 Alaskans to the Division of Elections in Anchorage on Jan. 16. The group is pushing to update the state’s law governing development in salmon habitat. The law has not been changed since statehood in 1959. If the signatures are verified by DOE, it will qualify to put the question on the ballot before voters in the November election. Fish quickie The Trump Administration plans to offer 19 offshore oil and gas leases for sale from Southeast Alaska to the Arctic starting next year. One public meeting for Alaska is set for Jan. 23 from 5:30 to 9:30 p.m. at the Dena’ina Civic and Convention Center in Anchorage. The Interior Department has stated it could remove some areas from the final plan depending on public feedback. Public comment on the leasing plan is open for two months. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

Initiative sponsors turn in signatures as BBNC shifts to neutral

Advocates of strengthening Alaska’s salmon habitat protection took a big step forward when they dumped roughly 49,500 signatures on the front desk of the Division of Elections Anchorage office Jan. 16. The signatures from Alaskans statewide were collected by Stand for Salmon, the nonprofit aimed at reforming anadromous fish habitat permitting requirements via the ballot initiative they’ve dubbed “Yes for Salmon.” Early morning drizzle and icy roads didn’t damper the spirits of about 20 initiative backers that gathered outside the Division of Elections to be ready to submit the signatures for certification as soon as the state offices opened at 8 a.m. Jan. 16, the start of the legislative session, was the last day to hand the petition booklets in and get the initiative on the 2018 ballot. It was also the day that Bristol Bay Native Corp., a major opponent of the Pebble mine, revised its stance on the initiative from against to neutral. While the signature hurdle is a big one, the initiative still faces stiff opposition from industry groups and the State of Alaska. Lt. Gov. Byron Mallott first rejected the initiative on the advice of the Department of Law because the state’s lawyers deemed it would appropriate Alaska’s water resources for salmon habitat — the state Constitution requires resource allocation be left to the Legislature — and therefore be unconstitutional. After Mallott’s ruling was appealed and overturned in Superior Court, the state took its turn to appeal to the Supreme Court in October. Oral Arguments in the case are now set for April 26. “This is a promising moment for all Alaskans. Tens of thousands of Alaskans from Nome to Ketchikan, from every single legislative district, have said that we want the opportunity to reflect a true balance between responsible development and protection of salmon,” said Stephanie Quinn-Davidson, an initiative sponsor and director of the Yukon River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission. Quinn-Davidson replaced Bristol Bay lodge owner Brian Kraft, an original sponsor, after Kraft stepped away from the campaign in November for personal reasons, according to Stand for Salmon representatives. Sponsors are required to gather signatures from registered voters equal to at least 10 percent of number of voters in the previous election from 32 of the 40 House districts in the state. For 2018 initiatives that meant getting 32,127 signatures, according to the Division of Elections. Campaign workers said they set a goal of 45,000 to account for unqualified signatures and were proud to have gathered the required amount in all 40 districts. Specifically, the initiative seeks to overhaul Title 16, the Department of Fish and Game’s statutory directive on how to evaluate development projects in salmon habitat. Current law directs the Fish and Game commissioner to issue a development permit as long as a project provides “proper protection of fish and game.” The sponsors contend that is far too vague and an update is needed to just define what “proper protection” means. The initiative would, among other things, establish two tiers of development permits that could be issued by the Department of Fish and Game. “Minor” habitat permits could be issued quickly and generally for projects deemed to have an insignificant impact on salmon waters. “Major” permits for larger projects such as mines, dams and anything determined to potentially have a significant impact on salmon-bearing waters would require the project sponsor to prove the project would not damage salmon habitat. Mitigation measures would be acceptable as long as they are implemented on the impacted stream or wetland area. Additionally, the project sponsor would have to prove that impacted waters are not salmon habitat during any stage of the fish life cycle if the waters are connected to proven salmon habitat in any way but not yet listed in the state’s Anadromous Waters Catalog. The sponsors insist it is not aimed to stop development projects; rather, it would set high but transparent permitting standards that are necessary to protect salmon resources that are already being stressed by multiple factors, they contend. Even if it wins at the Supreme Court, a laundry list of resource development, unions and trade groups, along with the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Regional Association (made up of the 12 Native regional corporations) and the Alaska Chamber have formed an opposition group called Stand for Alaska. That group has already received contributions totaling $147,000 according to an Alaska Public Offices Commission report. Stand for Salmon has collected $271,000 as of Jan. 7 according to APOC with the biggest donor the Alaska Conservation Foundation at $60,000. Opponents contend the initiative would decimate the state’s economy and make even the smallest projects — down to road repairs — extremely difficult if not impossible to permit. SFA co-chair Joey Merrick of the Laborers’ Local 341, who is also a member of the Alaska Gasline Development Corp. board of directors, said in a press release that the initiative poses a risk to his members’ jobs. “Alaska already is in a serious recession with one of the nation’s highest unemployment rates. The last thing we need is more expensive, time consuming, and unnecessary policies that cost Alaskans their livelihoods,” Merrick said. AGDC President Keith Meyer has argued that the initiative would prevent the construction of the Alaska LNG Project, and Gov. Bill Walker has also expressed opposition to the measure. Walker said the initiative is too broad in its scope and it could hamper nearly every area of project development in the state. “I think when you’re making definitions that impact development of projects in Alaska and you do that through the initiative process — I was very concerned about that,” he said in a Dec. 22 interview with the Journal. “I would like there to be a discussion back and forth; hearings in the appropriate hearing rooms in Juneau and various folks being able to weigh in.” BBNC changes stance on initiative The Jan. 16 press release from Stand for Alaska lists Bristol Bay Native Corp. among the dozens of corporations, trade groups and chambers of commerce opposing the initiative, but that list may need to be revised. BBNC is no longer against the initiative, but is not for it, either. CEO Jason Metrokin said in a Jan. 16 statement to the Journal that “BBNC has been and continues to be neutral on the initiative; neither opposing it nor supporting it. The ANCSA Regional Association as a body took its own action in opposing the initiative. BBNC and other ANCSA regional corporations are discussing ways to improve Title 16; changes that would improve salmon habitat protection but not preclude responsible development projects.” Metrokin, in an October statement to the Journal, reemphasized the corporation’s longstanding opposition to the Pebble mine project, but also said that BBNC “did not support (House Bill) 199 last legislative session and cannot support the Stand for Salmon ballot initiative. Each would unnecessarily and negatively impact resource development projects and potentially the subsistence activities upon which our shareholders rely depend.” Metrokin continued to note in October that the Native corporation wants to work with the Walker administration and the Legislature to “appropriately update Title 16’s anadromous fish habitat provisions.” The ANCSA Regional Association, with a board comprised of the 12 regional corporation leaders and Alaska Federation of Natives head Julie Kitka, voted unanimously to oppose the initiative in July, according to an October op-ed penned by CIRI CEO Sophie Minich and Arctic Slope Regional Corp. CEO Rex Rock. Other media outlets subsequently reported in November that BBNC opposed the proposed ballot measure as well. BBNC issued a press release Jan. 5 urging the Legislature to revise Title 16 and stressing the company’s positions on salmon habitat and other resource issues are grounded in a belief that decisions about how to balance uses of competing resources should always start with putting “fish first.” “The protections in Title 16 help ensure that development projects do not threaten Alaska’s anadromous fisheries. It is imperative that Alaska periodically review and update those statutes. This has not been done in nearly 60 years. It is time for the Legislature to do so,” the Jan. 5 release concludes. Shortly thereafter, BBNC board of directors member H. Robin Samuelsen Jr. told the Journal there was a “misunderstanding” between Metrokin and board members regarding the corporation’s stance on the initiative, but referred further questions to BBNC executives. Those questions led to the Jan. 16 statement. Democrat House Speaker Bryce Edgmon of Dillingham has said the House Majority will hold hearings on House Bill 199 this session to gather information on how Title 16 can be improved with input from those that oppose the initiative and the current version of HB 199. The bill language largely mirrors that found in the initiative and Edgmon has said he does not expect it to pass this session because of the consternation the initiative has caused. Elwood Brehmer can be reached at [email protected]

Walmart deal makes for year-round processing jobs in Anchorage

Copper River Seafoods highlighted its emerging role as a mainstay in the Alaska economy in a short ceremony Jan. 8 that celebrated selling 250,000 pounds of fish per year to Walmart and Sam’s Club. Even in winter, the plant on the shores of Ship Creek is filled with 100 employees cutting frozen fillets into portions that go out the door destined for plates in Alaska and the Lower 48. About 30,000 to 40,000 pounds of sockeye and kita, or chum salmon, per week continue to be processed throughout the winter, according Copper River Seafoods CEO Scott Blake. Plants like Copper River Seafoods in Anchorage are maximizing seafood jobs in the state’s economy and the blue ocean economy framework, said Alyssa Rodrigues, economic development manager at the Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development. “Copper River is able to sustain 100 year-round jobs when most of our seafood jobs aren’t year-round,” Rodrigues said at the event, which included brief comments by Anchorage Mayor Ethan Berkowitz, Blake and Walmart officials. What’s different from traditional seafood marketing is this mainstay of jobs are created from value-added frozen fillets. Filets cut into portions go into a “Members Mark” packaging that indicates the partnership between Copper River Seafoods and Walmart. “Typically seafood is minimally processed. Value-added bolsters the ocean economy, getting more value out of Alaska’s ocean resources,” Rodrigues said. Gaining more value-added Alaska production is on the department’s top 10 strategic goals. Berkowitz called Walmart “an Alaska-sized company” that helps stimulate the economy and “deserves our recognition.” Walmart has said its Alaska deal with the seafood company is part of its 10-year commitment through 2023 to buy an additional $250 billion in products to support American jobs, said Walmart’s Kevin Loscotoff. In 2013, Alaska fishermen picketed the South Anchorage Walmart because of a sustainability certification dispute when the state ended efforts to keep the Marine Stewardship Council label. Walmart required a third-party sustainability certification for its seafood and was not going to keep stocking Alaska salmon as a result. The fracas, joined by then-Sen. Mark Begich and Sen. Lisa Murkowski, resulted in a deeper commitment from Walmart to purchase Alaska’s wild salmon for its customers and the Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute has since developed its own sustainability certification process. Walmart announced its intention to put its buying power into products manufactured, assembled and sourced in America, said spokesman Scott Markley. “We’re half way through that commitment,” Markley said. Walmart has since purchased $800 million directly from Alaska suppliers, “and Copper River was part of that. We’re buying more with our existing domestic suppliers, which creates more jobs that helps our stores and local communities. And we can move quicker on trends.” The Copper River Seafoods plants in Cordova, Kenai, Naknek and Anchorage employ more than 900 people seasonally, a hiring task shared with the Alaska Department of Labor’s Job Center. The center recruits workers and provides orientation, said Nelson San Juan, one of the recruiters. Fishing families in Cordova were struggling in 1998 when Blake said they entertained top Walmart officials on a visit to Cordova. Copper River Seafoods at its conception consisted of four fishermen and one employee, Blake told the gathering. But Walmart wanted Copper River Seafoods and Blake wanted to net a partnership with the giant retailer. Through the years, their partnership grew, enabling the seafood company to grow to its current size. “Thanks to Walmart and Sam’s Club, and their belief we could do it, we now process and ship 250,000 pounds a year,” he said. Wild caught salmon supplied by Copper River has been on WalMart and Sam’s Club shelves in some form since 2007. The company also sells to Costco, restaurants in Alaska and the Lower 48 and other retailers. “Twenty-two years later, we’re close to employing 200 people year-round and we’ve become a significant employer for 1,000 fishing families,” Blake said. The seafood wholesaler also obtained Homeland Security clearance for its facility, which means the Anchorage plant is subject to shipping scrutiny ahead of time. “Our products ride in the belly of commercial airlines and rather than having them opening and searching our boxes, we would rather screen them ourselves,” said manager Billy Green during a tour of the 50,000-square foot facilities. “That way no one bothers with it.” After more than four years of routine and impromptu inspections, “we haven’t had a single failure,” he said. Naomi Klouda can be reached at [email protected]

FISH FACTOR: Annual picks and pans

For 27 years this weekly column has featured news for and about Alaska’s commercial fishing industry. It began in 1991 in the Anchorage Daily News and now appears in more than 20 news outlets across Alaska, nationally and in the UK. Today, Alaska fishermen and processors provide 65 percent of our nation’s wild-caught seafood, and 95 percent of the wild salmon. The industry puts more people to work than oil and gas, mining, timber and tourism combined. Alaska’s diverse fishing fleet of nearly 10,000 vessels is made up mostly of boats shorter than 50 feet. Each is a small business that supports several families. For towns like Kodiak, Cordova, Homer, Petersburg and Sitka, where 500 to 700 vessels are homeported, boats are the majority of our downtown storefronts. Here are my annual Fishing Picks and Pans — a no-holds-barred look back at the best and worst fish stories of 2017 in no particular order, and my choice for the biggest fish story of the year. Best fishing career builders University of Alaska/Southeast for “on the go” iPad training for fishery technicians, boat hydraulics, electronics, vessel repairs and more. Kodiak College merits honorable mention for same. Biggest new industry potential Seaweeds. Kelp alone is a $5 billion global industry. Gov. Bill Walker will unveil a statewide mariculture plan in March for producing more seaweeds and shellfish. The U.S. Department of Energy already is eyeing Alaska for bio-fuels from macroalgae. Biggest fish break Electronic monitoring systems replacing fishery observers on small boats to track what’s coming and going over the rails. Best fish entrepreneurs Salmon Sisters of Homer. Even Xtra-Tuffs came calling for the sisters’ flair on its boots! Best fish visionaries Tidal Vision LLC of Juneau. Their list of Alaska crab shell-based filters, fabrics and an eye-popping list of other products continues to grow. Best fish legislators Rep. Louise Stutes, R-Kodiak; Rep. Jonathan Kreiss-Tompkins, D-Sitka Best fish knowledge sharers Alaska Sea Grant and its Marine Advisory Agents Best fish giver Sea Share, for donating more than 225 million fish servings to needy Americans since 1994. The program began as a bycatch to foodbanks effort by Bering Sea fishermen and processors. Trickiest fish conundrum Protecting transboundary waters shared by Southeast Alaska and British Columbia. More than a half dozen huge mines are operating or being built directly upstream in B.C.; some straddle headwaters of the Panhandle’s most important salmon rivers. Most earth friendly fishing town Kodiak, for generating nearly 100 percent of its electricity from wind and hydropower, and for turning its fish gurry into oils and meals at a plant owned by local processors. Biggest fish WTF? Over 70 percent of active fishing permit holders call Alaska home, but most of the gross earnings go out of state. In 2015 Alaska fishing residents and crew grossed more than $602 million at the docks, while 6,580 Washington-based fishermen took home over $904 million. Scariest immediate fish threats Warming water temperatures are throwing fish behaviors and diets out of whack. Ocean acidification. The corrosion of shells and skeletons in sea creatures is already documented in the Pacific Northwest. Best fish ambassadors Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute. The Alaska seafood “brand” is No. 1 on US restaurant menus. Seafood sales are Alaska’s top export by far, topping $3 billion. ASMI, funded primarily by the industry, promotes Alaska seafood in the U.S. and in more than 120 countries. Most counterproductive fish cut Alaska legislators zeroing out the $1 million state ASMI budget in fiscal year 2018. (see above) In contrast, Norway’s Seafood Council, funded by a tax on seafood exports, has a $55 million marketing budget. Best daily fish news sites Seafoodnews.com; SeafoodSource Town that best promotes fishing futures Sitka. Training young fishermen, marketing local catches, fish quality studies, supporting buy-in options for new entries; the Alaska Longline Fishermen’s Association helps lead Sitka’s investment in future fishing careers. Best fish watchers Cook Inletkeeper, Trustees for Alaska Most encouraging fish talks The Stand for Salmon and United Fishermen of Alaska educational outreach on the push to update salmon habitat and permitting laws for the first time since statehood (1959). Most unacceptable fish story Nearly 60 million gallons of detergents, road runoff, human wastes, pharmaceuticals and other Anchorage effluent being legally piped into Cook Inlet every day thanks to decades long waivers from the Environmental Protection Agency. Best fish economist Andy Wink, Senior Seafood Analyst, McDowell Group Best go-to-bat for their fishery The Bristol Bay Regional Seafood Development Association, funded and operated by the Bay’s roughly 1,800 driftnet fishermen Best fish mainstream move Trident’s Fork and Fin food truck that is taking the message to the streets that overlooked Alaska pollock (aka “cod’s cousin”) is what’s for dinner. Most ill-timed fish story U.S. Navy war games held again in May as Alaska’s salmon season gets underway. The area covers 60,000 square miles off the tip of the Kenai Peninsula. The Navy is reportedly considering moving the training exercises to September. Biggest fish unknown Every Alaskan benefits from higher fish prices. Half of the taxes from all fish landings go into the state general fund and are distributed at the whim of the Alaska legislature. Biggest fish pipe dream Pebble Mine. “Wrong mine/Wrong place.” Best fish booster Alaska Symphony of Seafood by the Alaska Fisheries Development Foundation. For 25 years AFDF has showcased tasty new Alaska seafood products with a level playing field for the majors and small mom and pops. A new category highlights items made from byproducts, such as pet treats and salmon skin wallets. (Teaser: the 2018 Symphony winners will be announced at a gala soiree in Juneau in February.) Best veteran fish writers Margie Bauman, Jim Paulin Best new fish writer Elizabeth Earl Best fish mixer Pacific Marine Expo/Seattle, which has topped the half-century mark and continues to grow each year. Saddest fish story King salmon returns to Southeast Alaska at their lowest levels since the 1970s. Town that celebrates its fish best Cordova. Helicopters and hand delivered salmon herald the salmon season’s kick off! Chefs and media tours, restaurant revels, First Fish delivered to elders. Town that celebrates its fish least Kodiak. Fishing starts Jan. 1. No shout outs. Halibut opens in March, salmon in June. Ditto. No “first of the season fish” featured on Kodiak menus. Most important fish study Turning the Tide, which offers hope and guidelines for Alaska’s next generation of commercial fishermen. Find it at Alaska Sea Grant. Fish story of the year: The cod crash in the Gulf of Alaska, where annual surveys showed stocks of one of Alaska’s largest fisheries are down by more than 80 percent. The cod shortfall, blamed on warm waters over an extended period, is expected to last for three or more years. Alaska typically produces 20 percent of global cod catches. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Grant funds deckhand apprenticeship program

The clamor of “take me fishing” is taking on new meaning in Alaska. Prospects for a deckhand apprenticeship program just got a big lift from a $142,000 national grant awarded to the Sitka-based Alaska Longline Fishermen’s Association, or ALFA, and the group plans to get more boots on deck statewide. Deckhand apprenticeships are recommended as one way to attract younger entrants into an industry where the average fisherman’s age in Alaska is over 50. ALFA has been crafting a local deckhand training program since 2015, and the grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation will be used to develop curricula and protocols for skippers and crew statewide, said ALFA outreach coordinator Alyssa Russell. Salmon troller Eric Jordan gets the credit for inspiring the program, Russell said, adding that he has taken out 25 greenhorns so far for short-term crew jobs on his F/V I Gotta. “Finding crew with some experience, who love fishing in Alaska, is so critical to the future of our individual businesses in the industry as a whole,” Jordan said. “This program gives them the taste of it. Deckhands know they like it, and skippers can recommend them for future employment. It is a win-win for everyone.” ALFA took Jordan’s model and developed it into a more formal ALFA program, and “tried to rope in other skippers and deckhands,” Russell said. “We want to give skippers the tools they need to mentor someone. For instance, safety procedures, crew contracts, and basic checklists of protocol for someone who has never been on a boat before.” Jordan said he has been inspired by the enthusiasm of budding fishermen is his many “experiential trolling” trips. He shared a quote from one: “Crewing was a dream come true. I had never been commercial fishing before; I had never even killed a fish. The days were filled with learning and fun. I learned how fishing works, the lifestyle about salmon and a lot more.” A report released this month called “Turning the Tide” highlights the “graying of the fleet” and recommends ways that a new generation of Alaska fishermen can enter the industry. The user-friendly study was compiled by Paula Cullenberg of Alaska Sea Grant, Rachel Donkersloot with Alaska Marine Conservation Council, and Courtney Carothers, Jesse Coleman, and Danielle Ringer of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Fishery values Alaska’s halibut and sablefish fisheries produced a combined value of $208 million this year, a 10 percent increase. At the same time, the value of Bering Sea fisheries crab tanked. The data come from the tallies of Alaska fishermen who hold catch shares of halibut, sablefish and Bering Sea crab. They each pay an annual fee to the federal government to cover management and enforcement costs for the fisheries. The fee, which is capped at 3 percent, is based on dock prices through September and averaged across the state. For halibut and sablefish, a payback at 2.2 percent yielded $4.7 million for coverage costs. “Enforcement costs for those fisheries went down by 44 percent from last year,” said Carl Greene, cost recovery coordinator for NOAA Fisheries in Juneau. He said bills recently went out to 1,894 quota shareholders, down 74 from 2016. It was sablefish, not halibut, that bumped up the value of the combined fisheries. “The total fishery value for halibut at $111.5 million was relatively flat year-over-year, while sablefish increased 24 percent going from $78 million to $97 million,” Greene explained. “That resulted from an 11 percent increase in pounds landed and a 12 percent increase in average sablefish prices.” Prices to fishermen for halibut decreased by 35 cents this year, while sablefish dock prices increased by 50 cents. “The halibut prices decreased to $6.32 per pound and sablefish increased to average $4.84 per pound,” Greene said. Federal managers don’t track dock prices for Bering Sea crab, only the total value of the fishery, which took a steep drop. The value for the 2016-17 season totaled $188 million, a decrease of $40 million from the previous year. The fee for crab catches paid by 18 quota shareholders remained flat at 1.6 percent and yielded $3 million for enforcement costs. For just the second year, groups of big Bering Sea trawlers that fish for flounders, pollock and other whitefish, including vessels owned by CDQ groups, are pitching in for fishery coverage costs. Their fee of roughly one percent yielded just over $2 million. Fish watch It’s holiday time, but many Alaska fishermen are still out on the water and more openers are coming on line. Catch forecasts for 2018 also are trickling in almost daily from state and federal fishery managers. Trawlers are still able to fish for flounders, mackerel, perch and other whitefish, and cod is open to longline, jig and pot gears through Dec. 31. Then, the very next day, on Jan. 1, a cod season will reopen in both the Gulf and Bering Sea. In Southeast Alaska, divers are still going down for giant geoduck clams and sea cucumbers. Salmon trollers got the good news that the winter chinook fishery will remain open until further notice. A downturn in king salmon has managers using extra caution with catches. A closing date for the fishery, which typically can run through April, will be set at the upcoming Board of Fisheries meeting in Sitka. Also in Southeast: the 2018 forecast for the Sitka Sound herring fishery is 11,128 tons, down from 14,649 tons this year. The Sitka herring fishery usually kicks off in March. At the state’s largest herring fishery at Togiak, the 2018 catch is pegged at 24,042 tons, up slightly from this year. Bering Sea crabbers will be back out on the water in January targeting snow crab and Tanners. Alaska’s largest fishery, pollock, will open Jan. 20 in the Gulf and Bering Sea, including at Prince William Sound, which has a 7.1 million-pound catch quota. The Board of Fisheries meets Jan. 11-23 in Sitka. The board will consider 153 proposals regarding Southeast and Yakutat fish and shellfish issues for commercial, subsistence, sport and personal users. Catch limits for the 2018 Pacific halibut fishery will be announced by the International Pacific Halibut Commission at its Jan. 22-26 meeting in Portland, Ore. ^ Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

Pollock and salmon projected for big year in 2018

Next year is looking like another big one for pollock in the Bering Sea and sockeye salmon in Bristol Bay. But times are tough for cod fishermen, especially in the Gulf of Alaska. At its December meeting in Anchorage, the North Pacific Fishery Management Council increased the already huge Bering Sea pollock quota to 1.345 million metric tons for 2018, up from 1.34 million mt in 2017. That’s good news for the pollock-dependent community of Unalaska for local revenues and jobs. Pollock is the fish that annually makes the Aleutian Islands community the nation’s No. 1 port in volume. For the 20th year in a row, Unalaska/Dutch Harbor was the nation’s top fish port with 770 million pounds of seafood landings in 2016, primarily pollock, which accounted for nearly 90 percent of that total, according to a Nov. 1 report from the National Marine Fisheries Service. In the Gulf of Alaska, the cod quota declined by 85 percent, from 64,442 metric tons in 2017 to 13,096 mt for 2018. That greatly impacts Kodiak, and King Cove and Sand Point in the Aleutians East Borough. The Gulf pollock quota is also down significantly, from 208,595 metric tons, or mt, in 2017, to 166,228 mt in 2018. Pacific cod also declined in the much larger Bering Sea fishery, from 239,000 metric tons this year to 188,136 mt for 2018. Cod trawlers are complaining of a race for fish, and some now want to restrict entry into the catcher vessel fishery. Atka mackerel stocks are up in the Bering Sea, a commercially important species to the factory trawlers in the Amendment 80 bottom trawl fleet. The quota for the little striped fish was set at 65,000 mt in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands in 2017, but will see an increase in 2018 to 71,000 metric tons. In another big Bering Sea fishery targeting rather small flatfish, the yellowfin sole quota is unchanged at 154,000 mt for the Amendment 80 boats. Atka mackerel and yellowfin sole are shipped mainly to Asian markets. Cod crash The Pacific cod quotas for 2018 are down in the Bering Sea, but the decline is not nearly as drastic as in the Gulf of Alaska, according to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. It’s the difference between a 16 percent drop in state waters in the Bering Sea, and an 80 percent decline in the Gulf’s nearshore fishery. State waters extend to three miles offshore. Last season, 24 vessels 58 feet long or less fished for Pacific cod with pots in the Dutch Harbor subdistrict, where there’s no limit on the number of boats. Expect more when the season opens early next year, according to Miranda Westphal, of ADFG in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor. “We’re expecting to see more boats fishing in the Aleutian Islands and Dutch Harbor subdistrict fisheries,” Westphal said. The Dutch Harbor quota is 28.4 million pounds, and the Aleutian Islands’ is 12.8 million, for a total of about 41 million pounds in state waters, according to the Dec. 14 announcement. That’s more than the entire 2018 Gulf-wide quota of 9.8 million pounds for small cod boats, an enormous drop from 48.4 million pounds in 2017. ADFG Biologist Nathaniel Nichols in Kodiak said the cod crash is probably the worst in the history of relatively-recent state waters fisheries, which date back to the 1990s. The alarming Gulf cod numbers prompted an outreach message to fishermen from the North Pacific council. “The Pacific cod stock in the Gulf of Alaska has drastically declined. Scientific information suggests that this decline is the result of an unusually warm mass of water (the ‘blob’) that persisted from 2014 through 2016. The warm water increased the metabolism of cod while reducing available food, resulting in poor body condition and increased mortality,” according to the council. “The warm water also impacted cod egg production and larval survival, greatly reducing recruitment during these years. The lower number of adult and juvenile cod will affect the population and fishery for several years to come. Management of Gulf of Alaska cod is now focused on maintaining the spawning stock and increasing the likelihood that the fishery will remain viable in the future. Accordingly, catch limits for Pacific cod were set at very low amounts for 2018 and 2019.” The council sets the federal offshore quota, using the same information that determine state waters quotas. Bristol Bay megaharvest? Sockeye salmon gillnetters with boats and setnets are looking at another big year, with a Bristol Bay run forecast at 51.3 million sockeye and harvest levels of 37.6 million fish for the bay’s five commercial fishing districts, and another 1.5 million for the South Peninsula, according to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. The catch is projected at 35 percent above the average recent 10-year average of 28.9 million fish. One of the five districts, the Nushagak, near Dillingham, had a record-breaking year in 2017, with 12.3 million sockeye harvested from a run of 20 million fish, far exceeding the forecast of 8.4 million. The fish flood swamped both Nushagak boats and buyers. Four boats, heavily laden with salmon, partially submerged during a storm. And the overwhelmed processors limited the size of salmon deliveries from boats, limiting fishermen’s incomes. The Nushagak is projected as Bristol Bay’s biggest producer in 2018, with a run of 21.8 million and a catch of 18.5 million red salmon, a result again of the extremely productive 2013 brood year. The second-biggest catch of 8.9 million fish is forecast for the Naknek-Kvichak District, in the Bristol Bay Borough, from a projected run of 16.6 million fish. In the Egegik District, the waters of Lake Becharof are expected to produce a run of 9.12 million, with 7.45 million to fishermen. The Ugashik District run is prognosticated at 2.87 million fish, with a catch of 2.06 million. Togiak’s run is projected at 860,000 reds, with a harvest of 610,000. These, of course, are just predictions, as the Nushagak’s stunning performance attested last year. “Forecasting future salmon runs is inherently difficult and uncertain,” according to the authors, ADFG researchers Greg Buck and Katie Sechrist. Jim Paulin can be reached at [email protected]

YEAR IN REVIEW: As salmon booms, whitefish and crab take sharp turn down

Dismally low halibut numbers were found in surveys and announced last month by the International Pacific Halibut Commission, but final allocation decisions won’t be revealed until Jan. 22-26 when the commission meets in Portland, Ore. Scientists at the International Pacific Halibut Commission interim meeting in Seattle revealed that survey results showed halibut numbers were down 23 percent from last summer, and the total biomass or weight had dropped 10 percent. This means the commission may drop commercial Pacific halibut catch limits by 20 percent. The survey encompassed nearly 1,500 stations from Oregon to the far reaches of the Bering Sea, according to a news report by Laine Welch. Scientists for the first time are looking closely at environmental and habitat conditions, as well as trends in other fisheries. Warmer waters starting in 2007 appear to correspond to the lower halibut year classes, according to an IPHC senior scientist, Ian Stewart. Most relevant to the drop in halibut in recent years, as with Pacific cod, are the effects of “the blob,” an increase the past several years in pyrosomes or gelatinous zooplankton. These were also documented in sea bird die-offs and whale stranding, Sewart said. No. 2: Worse news is ahead for cod fishermen The Gulf of Alaska cod quota for 2018 was reduced by 80 percent compared to last year North Pacific Fishery Management Council. In response, the Kodiak Fisheries Workgroup is making efforts to have the steep decline in cod declared a fisheries disaster, the Kodiak Daily Mirror reported Dec. 18. Kodiak officials also said they will send a letter to Gov. Bill Walker to ask for federal disaster relief funds to alleviate the severe economic impact the decline could have on the region. In October, a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration survey reported a 71 percent decline in Pacific cod abundance in the gulf since 2015. Research suggests the decline was caused by the same mass of warm water in the Pacific in 2014 through 2016, known as “the blob” that produces the harmful zooplankton. The higher temperature raised the metabolism of cod while reducing available food, resulting in increased fish deaths, the management council said. The warm water also affected cod egg production and larval survival. With the severe population decline, the focus of management of cod in the Gulf of Alaska shifted to maintaining the spawning stock and increasing the chances of the fishery’s future viability, the management council said. No. 3: Council forced to craft Inlet salmon plan The North Pacific Fishery Management Council is looking for input from Cook Inlet fishermen on how it should develop a management plan for the area’s salmon fisheries, the Peninsula Clarion reports. The federal council, which regulates fisheries in the federal waters between three and 200 nautical miles offshore, is currently working on an amendment to the fishery management plan for Cook Inlet’s salmon fisheries. The process is likely to take multiple years of meetings. Council members decided to form a Salmon Committee that includes stakeholders in the fishery to keep the public in the loop. Specifically, the council members are looking for ideas from the public on how the committee will work, according an announcement sent out in late November. That can include any fishermen of the salmon stocks in Cook Inlet. “To develop a scope of work for the Salmon Committee, the council is soliciting written proposals from the public to help the council identify specific, required, conservation and management measures for the Salmon Committee to evaluate relevant to the development of options for a fishery management plan amendment,” the announcement states. No. 4: Crab harvests drop, too Biologists had some less-than-stellar news about Alaska’s crab fisheries in October as well: surveys show several species’ biomass declined in the past year, although Tanner crab is on the rebound compared to past years. Last year, the major commercial crab harvests of Bristol Bay red king crab and snow crab were cut and Tanners were closed completely due to concerns about the amount showing up in surveys. So this year’s news was not out of the blue, and the reopening of the Tanner crab fishery was an upshot. The bottom line is that this year, unlike last, those three big crab fisheries will all open this year. But the quota for Bristol Bay red king crab and Bering Sea snow crab is down compared to the year prior. That’s all largely the result of the survey and modeling work during 2017, which was explained in detail at the North Pacific Fishery Management Council annual update in October. The season began Oct. 15. For Bristol Bay red King crab, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, which jointly manages the federal crab fisheries with the council, opted to set the total allowable catch, or TAC, at 6.6 million pounds, the lowest in at least 20 years. The Bering Sea snow crab quota is also a decline from the year prior, at about 18.9 million pounds. The Tanner crab fishery is open in the western district, with a quota of about 2.2 million pounds, while the eastern district is closed. — Molly Dishner for the Journal

FISH FACTOR: Kodiak, Gulf communities brace for cod disaster

Kodiak officials already are drafting a disaster declaration due to the crash of cod stocks throughout the Gulf of Alaska. The shortage will hurt many other coastal communities as well. Gulf cod catches for 2018 will drop by 80 percent to just under 29 million pounds in federally managed waters, compared to a harvest this year of nearly 142 million pounds. The crash is expected to continue into 2020 or 2021. Cod catches in the Bering Sea also will decline by 15 percent to 414 million pounds. In all, Alaska produces 12 percent of global cod fish. The bad news was announced by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, which sets the catches for more than 25 species in waters from three to 200 miles from shore in the Gulf and the Bering Sea. “It’s almost like a double, triple, quadruple disaster because it’s not just one year,” said Julie Bonney, director of the Alaska Groundfish Data Bank. She added that the cod decline will decrease revenues for fishermen who use longline, pots, jig and trawl gear and make it more difficult for processors to fill their market demands. It also will be a huge hit to the coffers of local communities that get a three percent tax on all fish landings. Kodiak fisheries analyst Heather McCarty called the cod crash “devastating” for the short- and long-term. The cod decline is blamed on younger fish not surviving warm ocean temperatures that began in 2014. “It was different than other years in that it went really deep, and it also lasted throughout the winter. What can happen is the food source can deplete rapidly when the entire ecosystem is ramped up in those warm temperatures,” said Steve Barbeaux, a scientist with the Alaska Fisheries Science Center in Seattle. The warm water also hurt cod egg survival and wiped out several year classes of juvenile fish. The harvest numbers for state waters (inside three miles) also will plummet as they are based on the federal catches. That will really hurt small boat fishermen. A breakdown by the Aleutians East Borough shows state water cod catches next year in the Gulf will total less than 10 million pounds compared to more than 48 million pounds in 2017. As further examples of how badly it will play out in some Gulf communities: At Cook Inlet the cod take next year will drop to less than 700,000 pounds compared to more than 6.2 million pounds in 2017. At Prince William Sound, the cod catch will be less than 1 million pounds, down from 4.3 million pounds. At Kodiak, the state waters cod catch in 2018 will be 2.2 million pounds, down from more than 12 million pounds in 2017. Kodiak City Council member John Whiddon said there are criteria for declaring a fisheries disaster prior to an event occurring, which include certain thresholds. “An 80 percent reduction in quota over the five-year average, which in this case is where we are, gets us to the level where we can actually get this letter out prior to the prosecution of the fisheries, so we meet that threshold,” he said at a recent Council meeting. The City of Kodiak plans to get a disaster declaration request into Governor Walker’s hands by the end of this year. Bristol Bay Fish Expo No. 2 It’s more than six months away but participants are already signing up for the second annual Bristol Bay Fish Expo set for early June at Naknek. The Expo was launched last year as a way to open the doors of the Little Angels Child Care Academy. “It was pretty phenomenal. We raised $17,000 and our goal was $13,000. It was awesome,” said Katie Copps-Wilson, an Expo co-organizer. The theme of last summer’s Expo was “Bridging the Bay” with an intent of better connecting the surrounding communities with the fishing and processing sectors. “It really gave the people, the businesses, the fishermen — people who come into our community year after year — a venue to get to know each other better and help celebrate the community,” she said. The first Expo attracted 44 exhibitors plus sponsors of various events that will be repeated this go around. “We had a ‘speed dating’ job fair for captains and crew. It went really well and a lot of matches were made,” Copps-Wilson said with a laugh. Another popular event was a fashion show that showcased fishing regalia and vintage items from around the Bay. That event, sponsored this year by Nomar Fisheries Gear of Homer, will expand to include wearable arts on the fashion runway. The 2018 theme is “Celebrating the Past; Sustaining the Future” and will showcase Bristol Bay’s processing history. Copps-Wilson said local processors are some of the Expo’s biggest supporters. “They had so much fun having booths and are already planning for next year,” she said. “It’s their opportunity to get out into the community and see people and visit. A lot of these people have been coming here their whole lifetimes and they’ve never been able to be in a such an interactive setting.” The Fish Expo dollars will always go towards sustaining the child care center, she said, and next year will also benefit the local Boys and Girls Club. “People really appreciate that it’s not just a trade show and who knows where the money goes. The money is going back into the community to help out kids’ services,” Copps-Wilson said, adding that the Fish Expo has surpassed all expectations. “I don’t think we realized what we created,” she said. “We were interested in finding a way to raise some money so we could open the doors for Little Angels, but it grew into this other thing and we had no idea how big it would be.” Bristol Bay Fish Expo is set for June 8-9 at Naknek High School. Registration is open now at a reduced rate through the end of January. Learn more at www.bristolbayfishexpo.com. Fishing almanac debuts The first Alaska Young Fishermen’s Almanac has debuted in time for holiday giving and it is selling fast. The 140-page book, published by the Alaska Young Fishermen’s Network, includes stories, advice, recipes, photos and illustrations from across Alaska. The effort is touted as “a first-of-its-kind cultural touchstone that communicates and celebrates our unique, shared and cherished fishing ways of life”…and “it captures the ingenuity, persistence, humor and passion of the next generation of community and fishing leaders in Alaska and conveys the importance of community-based fishing livelihoods.” “It turned out so beautifully. I am so excited to see it finished and in people’s hands,” said Hannah Heimbuch, who participated in the project. “The vibrancy and beauty of fishing comes through from all of the contributions,” echoed Rachel Donkersloot, Working Waterfronts Director for the Alaska Marine Conservation Council, which helped fund the almanac along with the Alaska Humanities Forum. “From the poems and short stories and the colorful photos that bounce off the pages. These are our young Alaska fishermen and they are so creative and courageous and funny and hard-working. We also collected great advice from some of our veteran fishermen. I’m just thrilled with the way it came out.” All proceeds from sales of the $25 almanac will go towards volume #2. Find the Alaska Young Fishermen’s Almanac at the Salmon Sisters website at www.aksalmonsisters.com/. ^ Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

Bering Sea cod conflict brewing between on and offshore buyers

“Cod Alley” is getting crowded, and some fishermen want to limit the boats in the narrow congested fishing area in the Bering Sea. The North Pacific Fishery Management Council is looking at changes, including restricting flatfish factory trawlers from buying cod offshore. The Pacific Seafood Processors Association is pushing for restrictions on factory trawlers to protect its members’ shore plants in Unalaska, Akutan, King Cove and Sand Point. According to the PSPA’s Nicole Kimball, seven factory trawlers bought cod from 17 catcher boats in 2017, up from just one factory trawler that traditionally participated in prior years. The Amendment 80 factory trawlers act as motherships, processing but not catching the Pacific cod. “The share delivered to motherships increased from 3.3 percent in 2016 to 12.7 percent in 2017, while shoreside processors had a reciprocal decline. This is a meaningful shift. At this point it is open-ended, and there is nothing to prevent future growth in this activity,” Kimball testified at the council’s December meeting in Anchorage. Local government representatives shared the shoreplants’ concerns, citing a loss of tax revenues needed for schools and other services. On a smaller scale, it’s reminiscent of the inshore-offshore battle in the pollock fishery about 20 years ago. “This is a big deal,” said Unalaska Mayor Frank Kelty. “It looks like we’ve got trouble coming down the road again.” Cod is Unalaska’s second-most important product, behind pollock, he said. From 2013 to mid 2017, Kelty said Pacific cod landings brought in $4.8 million in taxes to Unalaska-Dutch Harbor. That includes $1.9 million in local sales taxes, and $2.9 million in state business taxes shared with the city. The average price-per-pound averaged between 24 cents in 2015, to a high of 33 cents in 2014, according to Kelty’s figures. The most recent price was 31 cents per pound. Ernie Weiss, the natural resources director of the Aleutians East Borough, said he wanted every pound of fish to cross the docks in the borough, which includes King Cove, Akutan, Sand Point, and False Pass. “We fully support the onshore processing of Bering Sea Pacific cod,” Weiss testified. The Amendment 80 fleet comprises the bottom-trawl factory trawlers that don’t target pollock, but instead net sole, perch, and Atka mackerel. Defenders of the offshore buyers included Jim Stone, owner of the catcher vessel Ocean Hunter. “Motherships offer another market,” he said, saying the onshore sector is dominated by three major buyers. Two of the cod-buying factory trawlers are owned by Fisherman’s Finest, and company official Annika Saltman said they help preserve a competitive market. One catcher vessel temporarily delivered to a mothership only because a shoreplant’s cod facility was closed for renovations, but will return to the onshore sector, Saltman testified. Kimball said the shoreplants also provide a competitive cod market. Trident Seafoods’ Joe Plesha complained the rationalized Amendment 80 fleet “disrupts other fisheries” by buying cod offshore. Various ideas were floated for limiting catcher vessel participation in the Bering Sea cod fishery, including controversial catch shares or individual fishing quotas. Weiss said he was “not a big fan” of catch shares. IFQs are not among the alternatives the council will consider next year. The purpose and need statement, approved unanimously, includes limiting cod trawling to vessels actually fishing in various years between 2010 and 2017. Essentially, this would create a limited entry program within a limited entry program. Bering Sea cod fishing is already limited to boats with fishing licenses. Some of those boats don’t usually participate, but can when prices are high or stocks are low in their usual fisheries. Brent Paine, the executive director of United Catcher Boats, said something needs to be done to regulate fishing in the congested area with increasingly shorter seasons. He predicted a three-week season in 2018. “This is the last unrationalized fishery in the eastern Bering Sea,” Paine said. “If you don’t do anything, we’re all going to be losers.” However, Paine said his group is not opposed to the Amendment 80 fleet buying cod offshore. While the shoreplants are actively opposed, the factory trawler fleet’s trade association, Groundfish Forum, is staying out of the fish fight. Executive Director Chris Woodley said his members don’t all agree on the issue, so the group is neutral. The Forum represents five companies owning about 17 factory trawlers. The crowded cod fishing grounds known as “Cod Alley” and the “Breadline” are located off the northern coast of Unimak Island. Paine said the active fishing area is 1.5 miles long by 40 miles wide. Cod fisherman Steve Beard of the fishing vessel Golden Pisces said his revenues are down 50 percent in the past two years, because of the competition. “I don’t want to be a Walmart greeter. I just want to fish cod,” Beard said. His passion for cod was acknowledged by two council advisory panel members, Jerry Downing and Sinclair Wilt, who each said he’s known as the “Codfather.” Twice, Beard said he’s entangled his fishing gear with other vessels. He called on the federal regulators to “stop the Olympic-style fishery that’s going on, and try to control it.” “It’s turning into a parking lot,” said council member Craig Cross. Fisherman Dan Martin of the trawler Commodore described the fishery as chaotic. But one council advisory panel member accepts chaos. “Chaos in the fishery, that’s competitive fishing,” said Patrick O’Donnell. After much discussion, the council established “a control date of Dec. 31, 2017 that may be used as a reference date for a future management action to limit catcher processors from acting as motherships in the Bering Sea Aleutian Islands trawl catcher vessel Pacific cod fishery.” Jim Paulin can be reached at [email protected]

FISH FACTOR: After rebound, halibut harvests may drop again

It’s going to be a tough year for many Alaska fishermen. Following on the heels of announcements of a massive drop in cod stocks, the industry learned last week that Pacific halibut catches are likely to drop by 20 percent next year, and the declines could continue for several years. That could bring the coastwide catch, meaning from Oregon to British Columbia to the Bering Sea, to about 31 million pounds for 2018. Scientists at the International Pacific Halibut Commission interim meeting in Seattle revealed that survey results showed halibut numbers were down 23 percent from last summer, and the total biomass (weight) dropped 10 percent. The surveys are done each year from May through September at nearly 1,500 stations from Oregon to the far reaches of the Bering Sea. While the Pacific halibut catches have ticked up slightly over the past three years, indications of a fall back have been noted, said IPHC senior scientist Ian Stewart. The biggest drop stems from a lack of younger fish entering the halibut fishery. Stewart said the 9- to 18-year-old year classes that have been sustaining the recent halibut fishery are not being followed up by younger fish. “In 2018, and especially projecting out to 2019, we are moving out of a fishery that is dominated by those relatively good recruitments starting in 1999 and extending to 2005. We see an increasing number of relatively poor recruitments stemming from at least 2009 and 2010,” he explained. Although they are not factoring them into their halibut catch computations, scientists for the first time are looking closely at environmental and habitat conditions, as well as trends in other fisheries. Stewart said warmer waters starting in 2007 appear to correspond to the lower halibut year classes. Most relevant to the drop in halibut recruitment in recent years, as with Pacific cod, are the effects of “the blob”. “Especially through 2015 to 2016 we saw that warmer water extending even to deeper shelf waters in the Gulf of Alaska,” he said. “We’ve seen a big increase the last several years in pyrosomes, which are these nasty gelatinous zooplankton, well documented sea bird die-offs and whale strandings. So some abnormal things are going on in the Gulf.” The IPHC does not always follow the recommendations of its scientists. Final decisions will be made at the annual meeting Jan. 22-26 in Portland, Ore. Sport halibut hike While commercial halibut catches are set to drop, charter operators will see an increase. A so-called Recreational Quota Entity program was approved by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council that will allow halibut catch shares to be purchased and held in a common pool for charter operators to draw from as needed. Under the plan, the RQE can hold 10 percent of the total commercial quota pool in Southeast Alaska and 12 percent from the Southcentral region, making it the single largest halibut-holding entity in the North Pacific. The program would be phased in over 10 years with transfers of one percent and 1.2 percent from each region, respectively. It is unclear where the RQE will get the estimated $25 million needed to buy halibut shares. Some have suggested a self-funding option such as a halibut stamp, similar to king salmon, or a voluntary tax. The RQE program is strongly opposed by commercial fishermen. In written comments, the Halibut Coalition’s Tom Gemmell stated that the RQE “undermines the goal of maintaining an owner-operated fleet, and will force fishermen to compete for quota against a subsidized entity.” Linda Behnken, director of the Alaska Longline Fishermen’s Association, said charter effort has remained relatively constant or increased despite catch conservation measures. “Charter operators claim their clients need more harvesting opportunity despite low abundance, ignoring the obvious need for all sectors to conserve during times of low abundance,” Behnken said. Longtime fisheries advocate Clem Tillion called RQEs the “death of a small boat, owner-operated fishery” adding “Holland America and Carnival Cruise lines will buy the quota and hired hands will fish it, and the small boat fleet out of villages is gone.” The RQE plan is set to begin next year. Gender on the agenda Recognizing the roles of women in the seafood industry and making them more “visible” is the goal of the new group International Women in the Seafood Industry, or WSI, and input is being gathered from around the world. The non-profit, launched a year ago, was created by seafood and gender issues specialists to highlight imbalances in the industry, to shed light on women’s real participation and to promote greater diversity and inclusiveness. One in two seafood workers is a woman, WSI claims, yet they are over-represented in low-skilled, low-paying positions, account for less than 10 percent of company directors and a mere 1 percent of CEOs. “There is a gender imbalance,” said Marie Catherine Monfort, WSI president and co-founder. Monfort, who is based in Paris, has been working in the seafood industry for several decades, both as an economist and a seafood marketing analyst. “I noticed that in most meetings I was surrounded by men, and I could only see men speaking in most conversations. Women were very numerous in this industry, but not very visible. They are not taken into account by the policy makers and by employers as well. That was the main motivation,” she said in a phone conversation. To gather more perceptions on women’s roles in the industry, WSI launched a first of its kind survey in September at a World Seafood Congress in Iceland. It went so well, she said, that WSI decided to translate the survey into French, English and Spanish and expand it to the entire world. “The questions center around what is the position of women in your company, and what is your opinion of the situation of women in the industry. Are there areas where things could be improved, or maybe some feel there is no need for any improvement,” Monfort said, adding that responses by both sexes are welcomed. “It is very important to also collect men’s opinions, and it will be interesting to see if men and women have the same or differing opinions,” she said. “The results will help us cultivate a better future with equal opportunities and increase awareness of women’s roles in the seafood industry. The more we are, the stronger we will be.” The “Gender on the Agenda” survey is open through December, and results will be available by early March. Questions? Contact Monfort at [email protected] Crab wrap The Bristol Bay red king crab wrapped up after about five weeks and by all accounts it was an uneventful season. “Fishermen were seeing about what we expected from the survey, with a little bit slower fishing and pockets of crab without real wide distribution,” said Miranda Westphal, area management biologist for the Alaska Department of Fish and Game in Dutch Harbor. The red king crab catch quota this year of 6.6 million pounds was down 22 percent from last season, and the lowest catch since 1996. The crab was “big and nice” said Jake Jacobsen, director of the Inter-Cooperative Exchange, a harvester group that catches 70 percent of the Bering Sea crab quota. No word yet on price and Jacobsen said negotiations will likely continue into January. Red king crab averaged $10.89 per pound to fishermen last year, the highest price ever. Jacobsen said the price is likely to be lower this year. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: DiCaprio backs farmed fish to save wild stocks

Recurring news headlines that have widely circulated about alarming declines of Pacific salmon have spawned a savvy new marketing strategy that tells consumers they can help save wild fish by eating farmed. Earlier this year actor Leonardo DiCaprio invested in a company called LoveTheWild (“a champion of sustainable, delicious fish”) that is promoting its oven-ready farmed fish dishes to U.S. supermarkets. “With LoveTheWild, we sought to create healthy and easy-to-prepare meals that people can feel good about — both in terms of how the fish is raised and how it tastes,” CEO Jacqueline Claudia told SeafoodSource news. The Denver-based company has now partnered with Amazon-owned Whole Foods Markets to sell its frozen fish dinner kits in more than 400 stores. (The dinners include Salmon with Coconut Red Curry, which features farmed fish from Norway.) Meanwhile, an investment fund called Aqua-Spark is backing LoveTheWild with $2.5 million to help them ramp up social media and marketing outreach to tempt consumers to opt for farmed fish at more than 6,000 supermarkets over five years. “The exploitation of our oceans has left many marine ecosystems on the brink of total collapse, and LoveTheWild is empowering people to take action on the crisis in a meaningful way,” DiCaprio said in a People Magazine splash earlier this year. In terms of salmon, “that is very misconstrued and quite frankly, wrong,” responded Michael Kohan, seafood technical director for the Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute. “Farmed production is in a completely different arena. It has no basis in terms of a consumer’s decision making whether or not to choose a wild or a farmed product at the supermarket. “Alaska’s science-based management is a model of sustainability for other fisheries around the world.” Andy Wink, senior fisheries economist with the McDowell Group, said the “farmed saves wild push” is misplaced. “Their heart might be in the right place, but I don’t think they are thinking it through,” he said. “They forget that the fisheries they are trying to protect are just a very small portion compared to all the fish that are caught in Alaska. If you’re worried about that, just buy fish from a responsible fishery. Then you’re voting with your dollar to support those who are doing things right.” The economic importance of supporting sustainable fisheries gets lost in the farmed fish message, Kohan pointed out. “Alaska’s fisheries support over 60,000 jobs,” she said. “We have a huge community of people who rely on consumers eating wild fish to support their livelihood. You support wild fish by eating wild fish.” Whitefish wins Cod and pollock were the big winners at the 25th annual Symphony of Seafood competition last week at Pacific Marine Expo in Seattle. The popular event, hosted by the Alaska Fisheries Development Foundation, showcases new Alaska seafood products that compete in four categories. Judges chose Wild Caught Lemon Butter Cod from Alaskan Leader Fisheries for the top retail prize. “We take all the fuss out of cooking. You take it from the freezer and pop it in the oven for 35 minutes and you have a dinner for four. It’s the first time it’s ever been done. It’s beautiful,” said Keith Singleton, vice president of marketing. Alaskan Leader also took top honors in the Beyond the Plate category for its cod crunchies pet treats. The category highlights new items created from seafood byproducts. The treats are made from the trimmings of cod fillets that are minced and turned into jerky-style wafers. “The pets go absolutely crazy over it. They do spins and hurdles, whatever you want. It is pretty comical,” Singleton said. Alaska pollock (cod’s cousin) also was a big winner. Trident Seafood’s Hot and Spicy Pollock Fish Sandwich took first place in the Food Service category. Trident also won the Beyond the Egg category for its squeeze tube style pollock roe. Salmon also snagged a win. The Seattle People’s Choice award went to Jack Link’s Salmon Jerky made from Alaska sockeye. The goal of the Symphony is to create more valuable products and expand markets for Alaska seafood, and salmon is a “poster child” for that diversification over the past two decades. “It used to be that we had two different types of salmon, canned and frozen/headed and gutted, sitting in a crate on the floor at the grocery store, like pumpkins during Halloween,” said Bruce Schactler, Food Aid Program Director for the Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute. “Now we have hundreds of new products that have created a several hundred percent increase in value.” Many second and third place winners also were selected at the Seattle event. Those, along with the grand prize winner, are being kept secret and will be revealed at a second Alaska Symphony of Seafood event in Juneau in February. Crab shares stall While it’s steady as she goes for the values of both Alaska salmon permits and high-priced halibut quota shares, there is little buy/sell/trade action for shares of Bering Sea crab. “It’s stagnant and that’s largely due to availability, and over the years there has been consolidation. Those people are in for the long haul. Likewise, the CDQ (Community Development Quota) groups and they don’t sell,” said Jeff Osborn at Dock Street Brokers, the “go to” guy for crab quota share insights. Also cutting into transactions are the declining Bering Sea crab catches. “Guys don’t want to sell on a low catch, even if the price of quota has increased. They’d rather wait till the quota comes back up.” Osborn said. Red king crab catches at Bristol Bay of 6.6 million pounds this season are down 22 percent. Snow crab at 19 million pounds is the lowest harvest since 2005. After a 20 million pound Tanner crab fishery just two years ago, the take tanked this season to just 2.5 million pounds. It’s hard to pinpoint a price for crab quota shares, Osborn said, since there have been so few transactions among the roughly 480 holders of crab quota. “Red king crab was pushing $70 a pound, but I don’t know if the market would bear that now. Snow crab would at least be in the mid-$20s, if not higher. But that’s a fair amount of speculation on my part,” he added. Osborn said that the “volatile biology” of the crab stocks and the potential impacts of an off-kilter ocean are “tough for crabbers to talk about.” “They aren’t ignoring it, but it’s kinda like what do you do? They wonder if and when it is going to affect the fishery and to what extent,” he said. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

Forecast predicts another below-average sockeye year

Next year’s sockeye salmon forecast for Upper Cook Inlet looks only slightly rosier than this year’s forecast. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game released its 2018 forecast for the sockeye salmon return to Upper Cook Inlet on Nov. 21, predicting about 4.6 million total sockeye to return to all the stream systems in the area. About 2 million would go to meet escapement goals, about 1.9 million would go to the commercial fishermen and about 700,000 to other user groups, according to the forecast. The prediction is about 1.3 million below the recent 20-year average of about 5.9 million fish returning to Upper Cook Inlet, but slightly higher than the 2017 forecast of 4 million sockeye returning to all systems. The actual 2017 return was slightly higher than the forecast, in part because the Kenai River’s late run of sockeye was larger than forecast. The 2018 forecast still leaves the commercial harvest lower than 20-year average as well. “The forecast commercial harvest in 2018 is 0.9 million less than the 20-year average harvest,” the forecast states. The Kenai River is forecast to see 2.5 million sockeye return, about 1.1 million fewer than the 20-year average of about 3.6 million. The Kasilof River is forecast at about 866,000 sockeye, the Susitna River at 329,000 and Fish Creek at 211,000 with all other unmonitored systems in Upper Cook Inlet accounting for the remaining 665,000 fish. If the forecast proves true, it will be the third below-average harvest year in a row for Upper Cook Inlet’s commercial fishermen. Commercial fishermen brought in about 2.6 million sockeye during the 2015 season, substantially below the 20-year-average, and though the preseason forecast for 2016 was promising, the run did not live up to expectations and commercial fishermen had another poor year, bringing in about 3.3 million sockeye rather than the 5.3 million predicted. The 2017 season was predicted to be below average and actually exceeded expectations, with a later and larger run than predicted. However, commercial fishermen ended their season with about 1.8 million sockeye, the smallest sockeye harvest in the last decade. The forecast of 2.5 million places Kenai River late-run sockeye salmon management into the middle tier for management, changing some of the restrictions on commercial fishermen, including giving drift gillnet fishermen the option of one inlet-wide fishing period in July. The managers watch the run throughout the summer and update the forecast by about the third week of July and adjust management strategies accordingly. Commercial fishermen in Upper Cook Inlet are forecast to harvest about 7,400 king salmon, 389,000 pink salmon, 177,000 chum and 203,000 coho in 2018, though those numbers are based on harvests in the last five years and not on enumeration data. Reach Elizabeth Earl at [email protected]

FISH FACTOR: Upcoming Summit tackles ‘graying of the fleet’

The biggest classes of Alaska fishermen are phasing out of the business and fewer young cohorts are recruiting in. The Alaska Young Fishermen’s Summit has convened over a decade to help stanch that outward flow, and facilitate a future for fishing leaders. The average age of a commercial fisherman in Alaska was 50 in 2014 compared to 40 in 1980. At the same time, the number of Alaskans younger than 40 holding fishing permits fell to just 17 percent, down from nearly 40 percent of total permits across the state. The Summit coming up this year Anchorage provides three days of fast-paced networking and skill-building for newcomers to fishing and those considering the occupation as a career, although everyone from “graybeards to greenhorns” are welcome to attend. “Age is secondary to what we are trying to accomplish and that is getting folks oriented to the whole suite of fisheries aspects from management to markets, as well as a real solid hit on looking critically at their business model,” said Torie Baker of Alaska Sea Grant in Cordova, which hosts the Summit. “If you’re thinking about diversifying your operation or getting into another fishery or upgrading, we have a lot of great folks who come and help us with all aspects of the business parts of it.” Besides business, the Summit focuses on Alaska’s role in world seafood markets, the latest science affecting fisheries and the regulatory process, which features a mock Board of Fisheries meeting. “We actually assign roles and have folks get up there and practice public speaking, and we bring in people who play those roles in real life,” Baker said, Networking with industry professionals and fishing peers is always one of the most popular Summit draws. “People get totally new perspectives about fisheries across the state,” Baker said. “Just for salmon alone, there are 26 districts from Ketchikan to Kotzebue, and our longline fisheries are all over the place. It is an eye opener for these folks to get together, compare notes and challenges and aspirations.” Fishermen’s concerns have changed over time, she said, and based on recent exit surveys, it is the environment that is now drawing the most interest. “There is definitely a sensitivity in the oceanography and physical processes going on out there. That’s the source from which this all comes,” Baker said. “We’re working with hunter/gatherers who connect the dots every day in their lives and livelihood.” The Alaska Young Fishermen’s Summit is set for Dec. 6-8 at the Dena’ina Center. Cost is $125 for registrations before Dec. 1 ($150 after) and travel scholarships are available. Salmon watch The world’s biggest sockeye salmon fishery keeps getting bigger. The red run next year at Bristol Bay is projected at 51.3 million fish. That would produce another whopping catch approaching 40 million, 18 percent higher than the 10-year average and 41 percent more than the long term mean. Last year’s sockeye run to the Bay was in the all-time top five, with record surges to several rivers, especially on the west side. And more of the same is predicted. Area manager Tim Sands said he believes recent warmer winters are providing better conditions for baby salmon. “Early ice-out, late ice-in…having extra growing time in those higher, upper lakes made those fish healthier, bigger, and more competitive when they got to the ocean,” Sands told KDLG in Dillingham. Biologists admit that predicting Bristol Bay sockeye runs is a tricky science. This past summer, for example, 42 percent more fish returned than projected, yielding a 37 percent higher catch. Using salmon data from nine river systems in five districts, Bristol Bay managers have had a mean error of 14 percent in harvest forecasts since 2001. See a complete breakdown for 2018 Bristol Bay salmon runs at KDLG. Projections for pink salmon next summer at Southeast Alaska are less robust. Managers at the Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game are forecasting a catch of 23 million humpies, below the 10-year average of 38 million fish. Biologists said abnormally warm water temperatures may have reduced fish survival and are driving a sense of “uncertainty.” Pink salmon that went to sea from 2014-16 returned in numbers below expectations and below recent odd/even year averages, managers said. Man-made salmon is proving to be a flop for investors. AquaBounty, the makers of genetically modified Atlantic salmon, admitted they may never make a profit as they seek to raise $20 million from the sale of its company stock. Seafood Source reports that AquaBounty made the comment in its U.S. Securities Exchange Commission filing earlier this month. The decades-long lab project to create faster-growing, genetically-modified salmon has caused “significant losses” the company said in its filing, and they expect to continue losing “for the foreseeable future.” AquaBounty shares on the NASDAQ were at $5.18 in early November down from more than $20 in January. The first batch of so-called “Frankenfish” was sold to undisclosed supermarkets last summer, most likely in Quebec. The company reported that five tons of GM salmon were shipped from its farm site in Panama, generating $53,000 or roughly $4.82 per pound. No one besides AquaBounty knows where the GM fish were sold, and no labels are required to alert customers what they are buying. AquaBounty said it plans to produce 1,300 tons of GM salmon annually (nearly 3 million pounds) starting next year. The U.S. gave a nod in 2015 to the “safety” of eating Frankenfish making it the first GM animal approved for human consumption, but it has yet to make it to American markets. More than 80 U.S. grocery chains and restaurants, including Costco, have stated they will not sell the GM salmon. Hats off to highliners Two Alaskans have merited National Fisherman’s prestigious Highliner of the Year awards: George Eliason of Sitka and Bruce Schactler of Kodiak. Both have spent decades in the wheelhouse and on deck, but it is their work beyond the fishing grounds that sets each year’s chosen Highliners apart. For Eliason, it was due to his years of dedication in finding ways to help young fishermen afford to have careers in local longline fisheries. Schacter was recognized for the years of heavy lifting he has done on writing and advocating on legislation to benefit seafood marketing, along with helping to expand global feeding efforts with Alaska seafood. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Seafood jobs in 2016 mirrored decline in harvests

Fewer men and women went out fishing in Alaska last year, in a familiar cycle that reflects the vagaries of Mother Nature. A focus on commercial fishing in the November Economic Trends by the Alaska Department of Labor shows that the number of boots on deck fell by 5 percent in 2016 to about 7,860 harvesters, driven by the huge shortfall in pink salmon returns and big declines in crab quotas. Fishing for salmon, which accounts for the majority of Alaska’s fishing jobs, fell by 6.4 percent statewide in 2016, a loss of 323 workers. The only Alaska region to show gains in fishing jobs last year was Southcentral, which includes the Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet fisheries, as well as fishing boats out of Homer, Seward and Kenai. All of the region’s fisheries added jobs in 2016, even salmon, scoring the state’s second-highest total employment at 1,661 harvesters. Southeast Alaska had the state’s largest slice of fishing jobs in 2016 at 29 percent, or 2,275 fishermen. But that reflects a decline for the third straight year. The Panhandle’s harvesting employment dipped 0.8 percent in 2015 and then 2.3 percent in 2016, declining by 53 jobs. Fishing jobs at Kodiak fell by 8.5 percent in 2016, erasing the job gains of the few prior years. That reflected a poor salmon season, where fishing jobs dropped 14 percent, combined with slight drops in fishing for pollock, cod and other whitefish. Bristol Bay, where fishing jobs rely almost entirely on salmon, took the hardest hit last year. The 1,276 permits fished reflect a loss of 133 fishing jobs, or 9.5 percent. For Alaska crabbers, fishing jobs were down by nearly 19 percent to 464, a loss of 107 fishermen and the lowest level since 2009. That was due to lower crab numbers and a called off Tanner crab fishery in the Bering Sea. The crab cuts cost the Aleutians and Pribilof Islands more than 122 fishing jobs in 2016, a 7.8 percent decline. Looking ahead, state economics said reports of record catches and a 67 percent higher payday for Alaska salmon fishermen this year suggests a resurgence in harvesting jobs for 2017, while other catches, such as cod, appear weaker. Symphony of Seafood Fourteen new Alaska seafood products will be showcased and judged this week at Pacific Marine Expo in Seattle. The products are competing in the annual Alaska Symphony of Seafood, hosted for 25 years by the Alaska Fisheries Development Foundation. In the foodservice category, the entries are Smoked Black Cod dip by Saltwood Smokehouse in Seward, Hot and Spicy Wild Alaska Pollock Fish Sandwich by Trident Seafoods and Alaska Sockeye Salmon Bites by Orca Bay Seafoods. Saltwood’s dip also is entered in the retail category, along with Kelp Campfire Salsa by Barnacle Foods of Juneau, Smoked Sockeye Trio by Trapper’s Creek Smoking Co., Wild Alaska Skillet Cuts by Trident, Jack Link’s Salmon Jerky by Link Snacks of Minnesota and Alaska Flounder Parmesan with Marinara by Orca Bay. The Beyond the Egg category, intended to introduce more roe products, attracted one entry — Trident’s Barako Style Wild Alaska Pollock Roe, meaning in a squeezable tube. Beyond the Plate entries highlight the many items that can be made from fish byproducts. Cod Crunchies Pet Treats by Alaskan Leader Seafoods is competing against three crab shell-based entries from Tidal Vision LLC of Juneau: High Tide, a plant immune booster, Game Meat Protector, a spray that prevents spoilage and repels insects, and Crystal Clarity, a 1 percent Chitosan Fining Agent for beers, wines and other beverages. Fish watch The eight-month Pacific halibut season ended on Nov. 7, with Alaska longliners taking 96 percent of their 17.6 million-pound catch limit. Kodiak led all ports for halibut landings topping 3 million pounds, followed by Seward and Homer. The industry will get a first glimpse of next year’s potential catches at the International Pacific Halibut Commission meeting Nov. 28-29 month in Seattle, and final numbers will be announced in January. The Alaska pollock fishery called it a wrap on Nov. 1 with a catch topping 3 billion pounds. The pollock harvest is pegged at that amount for 2018. The North Pacific Fishery Management Council will announce catch limits for pollock, cod, flounders and myriad other fish species under its purview during its Dec. 4-12 meeting in Anchorage. The state Board of Fisheries meets Dec 1-5 in Valdez to take up commercial, sport, subsistence and personal use fisheries at Prince William Sound and the Upper Copper and Susitna River regions. A one-hour training session on “How to Navigate the Board Process is set for Dec. 1 during the noon break. Frances Leach of Juneau will take the helm at United Fishermen of Alaska, the nation’s largest commercial fishing trade association. Leach currently works in the commercial fisheries division at the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. “Having grown up in a commercial fishing family in a coastal community (Ketchikan), I understand the importance of commercial fishing to Alaska’s economy and cultural heritage. The commercial fishing industry faces many challenges at the state and federal level, and I look forward to addressing these challenges as UFA’s Executive Director,” Leach said in a press release. UFA represents 34 member organizations from fisheries across Alaska and its offshore waters. Leach will begin her new job at UFA on Jan. 5. Got gas? “Not since the campfire scene in Mel Brooks’s film Blazing Saddles has the world been exposed to flatulence on such an epic scale.” So reads the recent headline in The Times UK announcing that, unlike cowboys eating gassy beans, in this case it is shellfish that are producing vast amounts of methane. Researchers off the coast of Sweden showed that underwater flatulence by mussels, oysters and clams produced one-tenth of greenhouse gases released in that part of the Baltic Sea, equivalent to 20,000 cattle. The Stockholm University scientists said they believe the shellfish are farting more robustly due to increased digestion of agricultural fertilizers in coastal waters. On a more helpful note, fish farts also are giving researchers and managers clues to fish distributions. ScienceShots, a publication from the American Association of the Advancement of Science, reports that a University of South Florida team picked up barely audible, cricket-like noises using a robot glider that sampled ocean sounds in Tampa Bay. The sounds lasted throughout a day and night, and were most likely from massive schools of menhaden and herring releasing gas from their swim bladders. NOAA estimates that of the 30,000 or so fish species in the world oceans, fewer than 1,000 have been recorded. The tiny cusk eel, for example, can sound like a jackhammer. A drum fish protecting its nest makes a mix of thumping and fog horn sounds. And for years the mating calls of cod fish have wreaked havoc for the Norwegian navy, because the love sounds are similar to enemy submarines. Researchers believe that tuning into the underwater soundscape can offer more clues to where sea creatures are and what they are doing. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

Report: Alaska tops nation in total fishing volume for 20th year

The annual report detailing national and regional economic impacts of U.S. fisheries totaled $9.6 billion in value in 2016 with Alaska as usual producing more than the rest of the nation combined. Alaska produced 58 percent of all landings and for the 20th straight year brought in the highest volume, according to the 2016 Fisheries of the United States report by the National Marine Fisheries Service. The top spot for all ports in the nation went to Dutch Harbor, which brought in 770 million pounds with Alaska pollock accounting for 89 percent of that volume. Dutch Harbor also produced the second-highest value in the nation at $198 million, behind New Bedford, Mass, which reeled in 77 percent of its overall catch in sea scallops to account for its No. 1 spot in the nation at $327 million in value. The Aleutians, where Trident Seafoods operates the largest processing plant in the nation on Akutan, was the second-ranked port by landings in the nation with 508 million pounds for $105 million. Kodiak was ranked No. 4 in landings with 417 million pounds and a value of $109 million. The report on landings of Alaska pollock, 3.4 billion pounds, increased from 2015 numbers. That fishery brought in 336.2 million pounds more than the previous five-year average. By volume, the nation’s largest commercial fishery remains Alaska pollock, which showed near record landings of 3.4 billion pounds. That represents 35 percent of the total U.S. commercial and recreational seafood landings. Alaska led all states in volume with landings of 5.6 billion pounds. The lineup shows Alaska was followed by Louisiana, 1.2 billion pounds; Washington, 551.9 million pounds; Virginia, 363.3 million pounds; and Mississippi, 304 million pounds. Alaska led all states in value of landings with $1.6 billion followed by: Maine, $633.6 million; Massachusetts, $552.2 million; Louisiana, $407.2 million; and Washington, $321.0 million. Under the review of major species, the count of Pacific cod landings was 708.6 million pounds, an increase just more than 1 percent from 699.1 million in 2015 to 708.6 million in 2016. Rockfish landings were down by 12 percent between the two years at the catch of 42.3 million pounds and valued at nearly $16.8 million, down by nearly 13 percent from 2015. Halibut landings in the Atlantic and the Pacific were 25.2 million pounds valued at $127 million, an increase of 3 percent or 627,000 pounds over 2015. The Pacific halibut accounted for all but 285,000 pounds of the 2016 total halibut catch. It brought in 6 percent higher value at $5.05 per pound, compared with $4.86 in 2015. Alaska brought in 97 percent of all U.S. commercial salmon landings, but the catch volume was down by more than 47 percent, a decrease of 505 million pounds compared with 2015. By salmon species, there was a decrease of nearly 2.8 million pounds of sockeye; chinook salmon decreased by 6.2 million pounds; and pink landings were down by 79 percent at 477.2 million pounds less than 2015. But coho landings had increased by 20 percent or 5 million pounds. Average prices per pound increased to 70 cents in 2016, almost 30 cents higher than 2015 prices. The 2016 pink salmon numbers widely missed the forecast and Gov. Bill Walker sought and received an economic disaster declaration from the U.S. Department of Commerce, but so far Congress has not appropriated any funds for it. Julie Speegle, the public information officer for National Marine Fisheries Service Alaska Region in Juneau said Alaska had a 7.5 percent decline in salmon landings overall by volume from a record 2015 harvest. “Much of this decline is accounted for by the expected large decline in the cyclical pink salmon harvest in 2016,” she said. Other highlights from the report show Alaska landings were almost 542.6 million pounds valued at almost $380.5 million. This was a decrease of 498.2 million pounds, or 48 percent, and almost $32.7 million less, or nearly 8 percent, in value compared with 2015. Salmon catches and prices rebounded in 2017, with a catch of 213 million fish, beating the state forecast by 9 million. The state sockeye catch was more than 50 million fish for the 10th time in state history and Alaska saw one of the best chum salmon harvests ever at 22 million fish. Under stocks of interest, the Pacific herring harvest of 52.3 million pounds was valued at $5.5 million but that fishery saw a decline of 24 percent overall in 2016. Alaska accounts for 99 percent of the Pacific coast herring catch and saw a decrease of 16.6 million pounds or 24 percent compared with 2015. In the employment sector, there were 9,788 jobs at 160 processing plants in Alaska. Among recreational anglers in Alaska, 319,000 people took more than 632,000 trips in 2015 and caught a total of 2.6 million fish. Catch included halibut, rockfish, Pacific cod, lingcod and salmon. Coho and chinook salmon were the most abundant in the catch numbers. Economic impact numbers will be released by NOAA in an upcoming economic report, available at alaskafisheries.noaa.gov ^ Naomi Klouda can be reached at [email protected]

Seaweed bar wins innovation competition

Despite its abundance, Alaska seaweed isn’t harvested for commercial use to the extent it can be found on local grocery shelves. That’s potentially a loss for the Alaska economy as projections for the commercial seaweed market are expected to reach $22.13 billion by 2024, according to Global Market Insights. What is stocked in dried spirulina and sushi ingredients tends to hail from Maine — a place where the waters aren’t as pristine as Alaska’s, said Udbhav Naidoo, a GCI solutions engineer who took part in the winning entry at the Ocean Technology Innovation Sprint, or OTIS, competition Oct. 27 at the Loussac Library in Anchorage. OTIS is a program based on the Google Ventures Sprint process tapped by the Alaska Ocean Cluster Initiative to get ideas generated for sustainable ocean-based economic development projects. It engages innovators as they tackle business or market solutions. In 40 days, five teams finalized five business ideas. Each concept met standards of feasibility, sustainability, desirability and viability in a marketing concept known as “human-centered design.” Naidoo and Team Chukchi members came up with the Green Sea Bar made 20 percent of seaweed — a product no one else in Alaska has developed yet for the market. The recipe consisted of sesame seeds, cashews and maple syrup, ground together with wakame or edible seaweed, and baked. The winning members are Caiming Li, a computer engineering student and software developer, Lowen Guzman a mechanical engineering student focusing on ocean energy, and Alyse Daunis program manager at Launch Alaska, as well as Naidoo. Once Team Chukchi settled on the seaweed nutrition bar, they needed to come up with a prototype. Daunis spent a weekend on a Talkeetna getaway trip where she used a 50-year-old stove and a match to light the oven and bake the bars. “We conducted taste tests, and the first ones didn’t work out so well,” she told the audience. The team had placed the bars next to each judge’s spot. Gunnar Knapp said he didn’t know it was part of a team’s presentation, but ate it and found it quite good. Forty days before the event, none of Team Chukchi members had met. Together with 25 others, they signed on to brainstorm in smaller teams through the ideation process, eliminating 25 to 30 proposals before settling on the seaweed bars. Each team was close to having a marketable project, but may have a ways more to go working out the kinks, said organizer Joel Cladouhos, executive director of the Alaska Ocean Cluster Initiative. “Everyone was great. I’m sure it was difficult to pick a winner,” he said. Team Pacific analyzed ways to better count fish. For all Alaska’s seafood wealth and recognition for sustainable yield fisheries, the weir counting system still boils down to counting “one fish, two fish,” said team leader Jared Fuller, a chief technical officer of electronic monitoring at Saltwater Inc. Though Alaska has thousands of productive salmon streams, only a portion are monitored by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game due to the expense, Fuller said. They came up with an idea for species recognition counts via a camera that can be placed at more rivers and bring down the expense. Team Arctic came up with a product that identifies bycatch and releases them through a hatch in another fish recognition system. Team Beaufort came up with a small consumer tidal energy product that can be built to scale for small boats or small communities. A virtual team called Team Bering Sea, led by Jay Carpenter, the director of technology at APICDA Joint Ventures, came up with an app that will allow marine industry occupational licensing and other online education courses. Members of this team met on Skype from Fairbanks, Homer, Louisiana, Juneau and Anchorage. A panel of judges posed questions to each team on the feasibility of their products before announcing the winner. They were Christi Bell, director of the UAA Business Enterprise Institute; Gunnar Knapp, retired from the Institute for Economic Research, Jim Jager, Port of Alaska external affairs director, and Wanetta Ayers, executive director of the Prince William Sound Economic Development District. Likewise, each team also had access to solid mentors in the topics they took on. Mentors included Nigel Sharp, the Global Enterprise Entrepreneur-in-Residence at the University of Alaska Anchorage Business Enterprise Institute, Cladouhos and Rachel Miller, an associate business professor at Alaska Pacific University named the Walter Hickel Professor of Strategic Leadership and Entrepreneurship. For their efforts, the Chukchi group wins a trip to network and learn more about the blue ocean economy at Blue Tech Week in San Diego, a meeting that includes professional mentorship and coaching. They also win a Kenai Fjords National Park cruise. All together, it was an amazing group of people to work with, Naidoo said. “One of most impressive things is that none of them were familiar with this. Alyse said she cooks ‘sometimes.’ Li and Lowen didn’t know about ocean resources. But they put in a ton of work to get up to speed and learn.” They aren’t sure what the next step will be in terms of moving forward to market their product. “As a group we’ve all decided we want to be involved in the development of a seaweed product,” Naidoo said. “We will continue the conversation.” Naomi Klouda can be reached at [email protected]

FISH FACTOR: Salmon permit values soar, halibut quota slides

It’s steady as she goes for the values of Alaska salmon fishing permits, with upticks in the wind at several fishing regions. “There’s a lot of cautious optimism,” said Jeff Osborn of Dock Street Brokers in Seattle. As well there should be after a salmon fishery that produced 225 million fish valued at nearly $680 million, a 67 percent increase over 2016. Bristol Bay drift salmon permits trade more than any other due to the sheer volume (1,800) and it’s no surprise the value is increasing after one of the best fishing seasons ever. But they are not “rocketing up” in value, said Doug Bowen of Alaska Boats and Permits at Homer. “They’re over $140,000 right now, which is up from the start of the season when they were down around $130,000 to $135,000,” Bowen said. “But they are inching up and it seems there’s as many people who want to get into the Bay as there are who want to get out, and so the prices have kind of stabilized.” Osborn at Dock Street agreed. “They haven’t come up at Bristol Bay as much as I would’ve anticipated, but maybe that’s yet to come,” he said, referring to potentially strong 2018 salmon forecasts being released soon by state fishery managers. The trend appears similar for permit values at other major fishing regions. “It’s interesting that some years there can be a huge difference between a drift gillnet permit at Bristol Bay, at Prince William Sound or Area M on the Alaska Peninsula. For whatever reason, this year they are all about in that same $140,000 range,” Bowen said. Elsewhere, the slide in the value of Cook Inlet drift permits reflects three lousy salmon seasons, despite being able to stack permits and fish extra gear. “That wasn’t enough to save the day,” Bowen said. “Those permits started at over $48,000 before the season after getting all the way down to the low to mid $30s. They’ve inched back up to about $40,000 but that’s down from $60,000 to $70,000 just a year or two ago.” Kodiak seine permit values have increased from around $25,000 to over $30,000. At Southeast Alaska, Bowen said there’s not a lot happening for drift permits at $100,000 and seine cards have “slipped a bit to the $180,000 range.” Meanwhile, more fishing boat action is going on fueled by the extra $200 million or so circulating from a great salmon season. “We’re seeing interest in buying and building new boats or upgrading to a bigger or newer boat,” Bowen said, adding “there is definitely movement with gillnetters and seiners.” Some salmon paychecks Wrapups of the 2017 salmon season reveal some rewarding paydays for Alaska fishermen, with a few exceptions. Reports trickling out from regional Alaska Department of Fish and Game offices show that Upper Cook Inlet salmon fishermen were among the losers. A total catch of about 3 million fish was 13 percent below the 10-year average and the sockeye catch was the lowest in 10 years. The preliminary value to UCI fishermen of $23.7 million is down 21 percent. Lower Cook Inlet salmon fishermen fared better. Their 2.5 million-catch fetched about $4.5 million, nearly double the 10-year average. At Prince William Sound, nearly 800 permit holders caught more than 56 million salmon valued at $128 million. That averaged out to $74,000 for drift gillnetters, $54,000 for setnetters and $313,500 for seiners. At Chignik, 67 permit holders caught fewer than 900,000 sockeyes but more than 7 million pinks, five times more than usual. That paid out at nearly $16 million, or $236,000 per fisherman. Norton Sound’s 138 salmon fishermen shared the best payday ever at almost $3 million. On the Yukon River, 401 permit holders fished for chums this summer, with 388 at the Lower Yukon where the average paycheck was about $4,000. At the Upper Yukon, 13 fishermen each averaged $21,000 for their chum catches; both dock values were above the 10-year average. The biggest fish bucks went to Bristol Bay fishermen whose harvest of nearly 40 million salmon paid out at $215 million, double the 20-year average. High halibut stall Prices for catch shares of Alaska halibut remain in the nosebleed area but they’ve been stanched a bit, at least for now. “They seem to have stabilized somewhat at high ranges,” said Doug Bowen. “Seventy-some dollars a pound in Southeast, $60 in the Central Gulf and in the $40s in the Western Gulf. The values stairstep down as you move farther west.” A big nosedive in halibut dock prices also has rippled the market. Prices that had for several years been in the $6 to $7 per pound range dropped closer to $5 at major ports, and some halibut trips were even being turned away. “When they don’t care if you turn that boat around and drive away, then you have to start taking them seriously that there are issues in the marketplace,” Bowen said. The price pushback coincides with a broadside from millions of pounds of cheaper Atlantic halibut flooding fresh fish markets. “That has put a lid on the halibut quota share market and slowed down interest,” said Jeff Osborn. “But it’s still a seller’s market, within reason. There is quota out there at prices people aren’t going to touch. Still, the transactions that have occurred are at lofty prices.” Halibut fishermen will get a first glimpse of potential catches for 2018 and that usually causes a quota share price blip up or down. “If the survey results show it’s really strong for one halibut area or another, you’ll definitely see folks trying to buy to get out ahead of any price increases,” Bowen said. Recommended halibut catch limits for 2018 will be revealed by the International Pacific Halibut Commission Nov. 28-29 in Seattle Fish fanfare and funds The Fall Fishermen’s Expo is set for Nov. 7-9 at Centennial Hall in Sitka. The event, co-hosted by the Sitka Seafood Festival and Alaska Longline Fishermen’s Association, offers free workshops, training, celebrations and social gatherings, including a first Fishermen’s Job Fair to connect prospective employers and crews. American Seafoods Company is accepting applications for its latest round of grants to Alaska projects that focus on hunger, housing, safety, education, research, natural resources and cultural activities. Most grant awards range from $500 to $3,000 from a total pool of $38,000. Since 1997, American Seafoods has granted over $1.4 million to Alaska organizations and programs. The company also awards educational scholarships to rural Alaska students. Applications are available online or by contacting [email protected] or call 206-256-2659. Deadline to apply is Nov. 27. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Latest fishing facts by the numbers

Alaska’s fishing fleet of 9,400 vessels would span nearly 71 miles if lined up from bow to stern. And Alaska’s fishing industry catches and processes enough seafood each year to feed every person on the planet one serving; or a serving for each American every day for more than a month. Those are just a few of the fish facts highlighted in the annual “Economic value of Alaska’s seafood industry” report by the Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute compiled by the McDowell Group. The report breaks down the numbers of fishermen, processors, species caught, values, and more, by region in a colorful, user-friendly way that can provide every Alaskan with a better understanding of the seafood industry, especially policy makers. Here are some highlights: The Alaska fishing industry employs nearly 60,000 workers, of which nearly half are fishermen. Thirty-six percent of those fishermen live in Southcentral Alaska towns such as Anchorage, Homer, Kenai and Cordova, more than any other region. Most of Alaska’s fishing boats (2,688) are between 23 and 32 feet in length. Southeast Alaska residents own the most fishing vessels at nearly 2,700 and they also own more fish quota shares than any other region. Seafood processing is the largest manufacturing sector in Alaska, accounting for 72 percent of manufacturing employment. Processing includes 169 shore-based plants, 73 catcher-processors and more than a dozen floating processors. At Kodiak, fishing accounts for nearly 40 percent of all jobs; 48 percent of all processing workers are year-round residents, the highest number in the state. Salmon accounts for the greatest economic impact in terms of jobs, value and income, with pollock a close second. Alaska pollock is the largest single species U.S. fishery by volume. Seafood is by far Alaska’s top export; more than 2 billion pounds went to 105 countries in 2016, valued at more than $3 billion. Exports account for about two-thirds of the sales value, with the rest going to U.S. markets. Globally, Alaska pollock provided 44 percent of world supply in 2016, Alaska salmon provided 14 percent, cod at 16 percent and Alaska crab at 29 percent. Since statehood in 1959, Alaska’s seafood industry has harvested nearly 170 billion pounds of seafood. The largest harvest ever was in 2015, which topped 6 billion pounds. Of the numerous fishery taxes and fees, 40 percent goes to state coffers and is distributed at the whim of the Alaska legislature ($58 million in 2016), and 31 percent goes to local governments where the fish was landed. EM deadline approaching The deadline to sign up to use electronic monitoring systems next year instead of human observers to track catches is fast approaching. It applies to boats using longline and pot gear, but preference is given to vessels that are between 40 feet and 60 feet in length. “If you don’t get in by the Nov. 1 deadline you will not be eligible,” said Malcolm Milne, president of the Homer-based North Pacific Fisheries Association, which for several years has helped develop the EM system in Alaska. In trials, the video cameras proved they could track and identify more than 95 percent of the species required for fishery management decisions, and by all accounts, the system is easy to use. “Once your boat is wired you just turn the cameras on and they record everything coming over the rails,” Milne explained. “When the set is done the camera is off and at the end of your trip you mail in the hard drive to be reviewed. It took a trip or two to get used to the system, but after that you don’t even realize it’s there.” Also easy, he said, is the sign up, which takes about 10 minutes. “Anyone who is participating in the observer program already has a user name and password. You can go online and click on a button to opt in to EM and after a couple of quick questions you’re done,” he said. Even better, the electronic monitoring systems come at no cost to users. “It all comes out of the 1.25 percent North Pacific observer fee so we are paying indirectly, but there is no additional cost for having the electronic monitoring installed,” Milne said. So far about 110 longline and pot boats have signed onto the EM program and the new program will only cover as many boats as funding allows. Register by Nov. 1 with a phone call at 1-855-747-6377 or online at the Observer Declare and Deploy System (ODD). Crab con Bering Sea crab fisheries opened on Oct. 15 and eager markets await the first deliveries of snow, Tanner and red king crab. While national surveys clearly show that most Americans want to know where their foods come from, they won’t have a clue when it comes to Alaska crab. Customers can easily tell at retail counters where their salmon, cod and other fish choices was caught, and if the fish is wild or farmed. That’s due to Country of Origin Labeling, or COOL, laws, which went into effect more than a decade ago. But the laws do not apply to seafood that has been “processed,” no matter how minimally. “There is an exemption in the COOL laws for products that are cooked or otherwise altered — steamed, canned, things like that — and since crab are required to be cooked right after delivery they are not included,” explained Jake Jacobsen, director of the Inter-Cooperative Exchange, a harvester group that catches 70 percent of the Bering Sea crab quota. “When a consumer goes into a grocery store they don’t know if the crab comes from Russia or Newfoundland or Alaska. We think that American consumers will prefer Alaskan product and there are good reasons for that,” he added. The push to exclude products that are canned, pouched, smoked or steamed stemmed from a big push by the U.S. tuna fleet. “All we wanted to do was carve out crab, but they had a much more powerful lobby than we did,” Jacobsen said. The crabbers believe the public has a right to know, especially because much of the crab imported into the U.S. from Russia is illegally caught. In past years, an estimated 40 percent of king crab sold in world markets was from pirated Russian harvests. Jacobsen said the situation has improved but the crab import data can be deceiving. “There is still poached crab going into China and Korea and then finding its way into the U.S. But there is no way to tell if it’s legal or not because there is no traceability requirement,” he explained. Crabbers have taken their case directly to U.S. buyers and retailers and several, including HyVee and Publix, only source their crab from Alaska. Meanwhile, Jacobsen said the push to get U.S. labeling on Alaska crab will continue. On a related note: Tanner crab is spelled with a capitol T because the species crab was discovered by and named after Lieutenant Zera Luther Tanner, commander of the research vessel Albatross that explored Alaska waters in the late 1800s. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

State appeals habitat initiative ruling

The ballot initiative proposed to strengthen laws protecting salmon habitat is headed for a supreme resolution, which doesn’t bother the initiative’s primary sponsor. On Oct. 20 the state Department of Law appealed to the Alaska Supreme Court to have a Superior Court ruling upholding the initiative on constitutional grounds overturned. Subsequent to that, Lt. Gov. Byron Mallott wrote a letter to lead sponsor and Cook Inlet commercial fishermen Mike Wood informing him of the administration’s decision to appeal the Oct. 9 Superior Court decision. Mallott stressed in his one-page letter that the appeal is meant to settle a legal issue, not a political one. “Although I believe an appeal was the right thing to do, I want to make it abundantly clear that this decision is based solely on the Alaska Department of Law’s unbiased analysis of the constitutionality of your proposed initiative,” Mallott wrote in the second sentence of the letter. The lieutenant governor — whose primary responsibility is to oversee state elections — also noted the Law Department has requested expedited consideration of the time-sensitive issue to ensure it is resolved in time for next year’s elections if the initiative ultimately succeeds. “Despite the spurious claims that my stance is solely political in nature, I want to remind you and all Alaskans that when I became lieutenant governor in 2014 I took an oath of office and swore to ‘support and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of Alaska,’” Mallott wrote further. “I do not take those words for granted. I also believe this is an important issue that our highest court should ultimately decide.” Attorney General Jahna Lindemuth echoed Mallott in a formal statement issued by the Department of Law. “We take no position on whether (the initiative) is good policy. This is about the Superior Court’s legal conclusion and our duty to defend the Alaska Constitution, and we believe the Superior Court got it wrong,” Lindemuth said. Wood said in an interview that he understands the public perception bind the issue has put Mallott and Gov. Bill Walker in. “They have to do this. This isn’t a surprise,” Wood said of the appeal. “In many ways, I’m like, ‘go for it,’ let them push it that far. I think we’ll come out on top in the end, which will just strengthen our position.” Mallott refused to certify the “Stand for Salmon” ballot initiative Sept. 12 based on a Law Department opinion that concluded the changes to state law in the language of the measure would constitute prioritizing using state waters as salmon habitat above all other uses, such as in industrial or infrastructure developments. The Alaska Constitution prohibits citizen initiatives from prescribing such resource allocations; that power is reserved for the Legislature. However, Superior Court Judge Mark Rindner overturned Mallott’s rejection Oct. 9, ruling the initiative, which aims to prevent projects that would have “significant adverse effects” on salmon waters as a resource regulation, not an allocation. Wood also chairs the nonprofit group Stand for Salmon. He and other supporters of the law change contend the current language in Title 16, the state’s fish and game habitat permitting statute, which state’s the Fish and Game commissioner shall approve projects that “provide for the proper protection of fish and game,” is too ambiguous and has been eroded over time. Industry groups including the Resource Development Council for Alaska and the Alaska Chamber insist enacting the initiative would kill any meaningful development right down to local infrastructure projects, such as roads, bridges and utility projects. In July, the heads of the 12 Alaska Native regional corporations signed a joint letter opposing the ballot measure. Jason Metrokin, CEO of Bristol Bay Native Corp., which has led the fight against the proposed Pebble mine — a project the initiative sponsors have said they also hope to stop — wrote in a statement for the Journal that notwithstanding BBNC’s position on Pebble, the corporation believes developments that align with local opinion and don’t threaten fisheries should be allowed to proceed. BBNC also opposes House Bill 199, which largely mirrors the initiative language, and the Stand for Salmon initiative. “Each would unnecessarily and negatively impact resource development projects and potentially the subsistence activities upon which our shareholders depend,” Metrokin wrote. “Accordingly, BBNC is interested in working with the Walker administration, the Legislature and all stakeholders to appropriately update Title 16’s anadromous fish habitat provisions.” House Bill 199, sponsored by Rep. Louise Stutes, R-Kodiak, and the initiative were spurred in large part by an open-ended January request by the Board of Fisheries to update Title 16 at the behest of fishing groups. Similarly, the Kenai Peninsula Borough Assembly unanimously passed a resolution last year asking for further habitat protections in Title 16, which hasn’t been changed since statehood. Cook Inlet Region Inc. CEO Sophie Minich co-authored an op-ed opposing the initiative while the Eklutna and Chickaloon Native village councils — comprised of CIRI shareholders — have supported HB 199 in written testimony to the Legislature. CIRI spokesman Jason Moore said the regional corporation respects the rights and motivations of the Tribal organizations on this issue, but added that the initiative could restrict economic development opportunities on CIRI land that would ultimately benefit its shareholders. “We just think this measure is trying to solve a problem that doesn’t exist,” Moore said. On Oct. 18, RDC Executive Director Marleanna Hall, Alaska Chamber CEO Curtis Thayer and Doyon Ltd. CEO Aaron Schutt and Joey Merrick, a manager for the Laborers’ Union Local 341 filed with the Alaska Public Offices Commission to form Stand for Alaska, a group aimed at campaigning against the initiative. Hall said in an interview that the language in the measure “would leave too much speculation and uncertainty” for developers regarding what would be allowable disruption and mostly ignores accepted mitigation practices to improve habitat in one area of another is damaged. She also questioned why the sponsors are not being asked to prove why the initiative is necessary, saying that goes back to her belief that it is “seeking an answer to a problem that doesn’t exist.” “This initiative goes way beyond what the original request was from the Board of Fish to the Legislature in January. It goes way beyond our existing regulations that are already protecting fish habitat,” Hall said. “I think people get really excited about something that they get emotional about instead of looking at the facts.” Supporters insist the measure allows for habitat disruption if corresponding mitigation and recovery efforts are made to the same water body. A court affidavit submitted prior to the Oct. 9 Superior Court ruling by Alvin Ott, a fisheries biologist and manager in Fish and Game’s Habitat Division states that Ott believes the current plan for the massive Donlin gold mine proposed for the Upper Kuskokwim River drainage would not be permissible under the initiative because it calls for destroying American and Anaconda creeks. As an offset, Donlin is planning to enhance coho salmon rearing habitat in nearby Crooked Creek; however, such mitigation to an offsite stream would not be sufficient under the initiative, which requires that the impacted waters eventually be restored, according to Ott. Wood contends the initiative would provide industry interests clarity around about what activities are allowable, instead of relying on the open-ended “proper protection” phrase. He and other initiative backers have also said the only reason Alaska’s premier salmon fisheries have not been damaged so far is the state’s large mines are in the Interior and other areas away from large salmon runs. “We’re trying to make sure that industry can continue with assurances on both sides that it won’t affect fish. This is not designed to stop development at all. This raises the bar again,” he said. ^ Elwood Brehmer can be reached at [email protected]

FISH FACTOR: Dept. of Energy looks to seaweed as energy source

Kodiak is at the center of a national push to produce biofuels from seaweeds. Agents from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy, ARPA-E, recently traveled to the island to meet with a team of academics, scientists, businesses and local growers to plan the first steps of a bicoastal pilot project to modernize methods to grow sugar kelp as a fuel source. The project is bankrolled by a $500,000 grant to the University of Alaska Fairbanks through a new DOE program called Macroalgae Research Inspiring Novel Energy Resources, or MARINER. It has funded 18 projects to develop new tools to help the U.S. grow into a “world leader” in production of macroalgae (seaweed) as fuel, chemical feedstock and animal feed. “By further developing this untapped resource, the U.S. could eventually produce enough seaweed to handle as much as 10 percent of our demand for transportation fuel,” according an ARPA-E release. The group estimates the U.S could produce at least 500 million dry metric tons of macroalgae per year, which could yield about 2.7 quadrillion thermal units of liquid fuel. “The exclusive economic zone of the U.S. oceans (out to 200 miles) is equivalent in size to the nation’s whole land area,” said Marc von Keitz, ARPA-E program director. “Right now we are at the very early stage and it is a very manual, artisanal type operation. If we want to make large quantities so it is relevant for energy, we need to think about how we scale it up.” In 2014, the world produced 25 million wet metric tons of seaweed through a combination of wild harvesting and highly labor-intensive farming techniques. Current operations are not capable of supporting a viable seaweed-to-fuels industry. “The vision is to have a demonstration on the east and west coasts showing that we can grow large fields of seaweed in a way that is efficient and cost effective with petroleum and other energy enterprises,” said Alaska project leader Mike Stekoll, a biochemistry professor at UAS in Juneau. The first ocean tests will be conducted by researchers at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, WHOI, in Falmouth, Mass. “We are not sure yet what the final design will be, but it will be scalable to any size. These trial areas would probably be a couple hundred meters long and 50 or so meters wide,” Stekoll said. Kodiak’s role, in collaboration with the Alaska Fisheries Development Foundation, will be to figure out the most cost-effective way to grow, harvest and transport large amounts of sugar kelp based on technologies applied in the fishing industry. “One of the things that intrigued us is that you have this very experienced fishing industry and experts who have done a lot of creative and innovative things on a wide variety of vessels,” said von Keitz. “We want to take that ingenuity and see if we can apply it to macroalgae. I think it’s a big opportunity. “We are not going to get there in two or three years. What is important is have a long-term vision and to develop stepping stones toward growth.” Kodiak Island Sustainable Seaweed, or KISS, is one of Alaska’s first stepping stones. This year the small growing operation by Stephanie and Nick Mangini produced the state’s first successful harvest of 15,000 pounds of sugar and ribbon kelp on a one-acre parcel. “It is so cool be a part of revolutionizing the way seaweed farming is done. These “out of the box” field tests will really make it happen,” said Stephanie Mangini. Part of the overall project will be to assess hazards to navigation and other potential obstacles in offshore and near shore operations. “As far as feelings of ‘not in my back yard,’ Stekoll said some places in Alaska are more receptive than others. “Kodiak is one of the places that sees the value in this sort of enterprise,” he added. Learn more about the potential for a seaweed industry in a new publication by Alaska Sea Grant titled “Seaweed Farming in Alaska.” Salmon protections proceed The proposed 2018 voter ballot initiative aimed at modernizing salmon habitat protections and permitting laws got a green light last week by an Anchorage Superior Court judge after it was rejected by Lt. Gov. Byron Mallott. The measure, pushed by the group Stand for Salmon, would update state laws for the first time since statehood in 1959. “I was delighted. I was jumping for joy!” said Rep. Louise Stutes, R-Kodiak, in response to the reversal. Stutes, who also chairs the House fisheries committee, introduced a similar measure last year as House Bill 199, the Wild Salmon Legacy Act. She said the pending voter initiative will “fire up” action by Alaska policy makers in next year’s legislative session, notably, those on the Senate Resources Committee who she claims are “adamantly opposed” to any move that might curtail or cut taxes on oil and gas development. “They would probably just shelve the bill,” Stutes retorted. “This gives us some leverage. The bill and the initiative are strongly supported by the public. If they don’t want to work with us, they are going to get the initiative. And the public is not as accommodating as we might be on the House Fisheries Committee. “My intent is not to put any resource out of business. My intent is if you are going to develop a resource, you have to maintain clean habitat for our salmon. It may require additional permitting, but we can work together.” The judge’s ruling could still be appealed by the state. Meanwhile, proponents must organize to gather nearly32,000 voter signatures to put the salmon protection measure before voters next November. It is possible that legislative action could preempt that need. “I believe that if we get something through the legislature the initiative won’t appear on the ballot,” Stutes said. She added that she is disappointed in a lack of follow through on “fish first” policies the Walker Administration laid claim to four years ago, pointing to the tanked salmon initiative and the threats posed to Southeast waters from upstream large mines in Canada. “I believe to the core of my soul,” she said, “that fishermen and others are seeing this as saying one thing and doing another.” Kodiak crab comeback? For the first time since 2013 Kodiak crabbers might be able to drop pots for Tanners in mid-January. “I’d say it’s the best chance we’ve had in the last five years,” said Nat Nichols, area shellfish/groundfish manager at the Alaska Department of Fish and Game in Kodiak. Crab stocks must reach strict number thresholds before a fishery is allowed to open. Preliminary data from the summer survey indicate two Kodiak districts might have enough legal sized males — the only crabs that can be retained — to allow for a fishery. “We will be looking very closely at the southwest and eastside to see if we can get to an exploitation rate that we are comfortable with and also gets us above that minimum 400,000 pound harvest guideline,” Nichols explained. The survey showed slight improvements at Chignik and the South Peninsula, but Nichols said again no Tanner fisheries will open there. It takes Tanner crabs six to seven years to reach a legal, two-pound size. Nichols said he believes Kodiak has a shot at a small fishery for the next two years. “After that, it looks like we might have a gap for a year or three before we get to the next recruitment pulse that would lead to a fishery,” he said, adding that there are encouraging signs for the future. “We are seeing a good bit of small crab in the water again this year,” he said, “but they are several years out from being legal.” ADFG will announce the fate of a 2018 fishery on Nov. 1. Fish correction The 2017 Gulf of Alaska catch quota for cod in federal waters is 64,442 metric tons (142 million pounds), down 10 percent from 2016; not 150,000 metric tons as was reported last week. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

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