Laine Welch

British Columbia fish farm tests waters with lucrative black cod

KODIAK -- Totem Seafarms of Jervis Inlet, British Columbia, put some of the first farmed black cod, also called sablefish, onto the market in mid-January. According to the Fish Information Service, Totem’s Gus Angus said that even though the 750, five-pound fish were more of a sample for the market than a real commodity, he believes there is a bright future for sablefish aquaculture. "It’s going great. It is in its absolute infancy. There is a tremendous amount of work to do in hatching and rearing. It’s a great fish," he said. Angus said the quality of the flesh was very acceptable to the market, and the fish fetched about the same price as wild black cod in the seven- to nine-pound range, around $4.50 Canadian a pound. A private firm called Island Scallops Ltd., is also hatching sablefish for sale to grow-out sites. The company supplied 13,000 fish to growers in 2001 and intends to have 100,000 available this year. Spokesman Robert Saunders said there are other marine species under consideration by the aquaculture industry, but right now sablefish is what he calls the "prime candidate." With wild black cod being one of the most valuable fish on the market, interest has been high to develop a farmed version. Commercial fishermen in British Columbia are alarmed by the government’s support of black cod aquaculture in the province. Chris Acheson of the Canadian Sablefish Association told FIS the government is not taking into consideration the economic and environmental impact such aquaculture could have on the wild industry. A recent study prepared for the government of British Columbia stated that once farmed black cod is produced in large volumes, it could cause a price drop of 40 percent in the price of fish. The report predicted that aquaculture could be producing potentially up to 16,000 tons by 2021 with revenues of $22 million to $114 million Canadian. Flying squid destined for Japan After years of quiet preparation, a handful of U.S. vessels has begun jigging for neon flying squid in the North Pacific. Several former Bering Sea crabbers have been outfitted with jig machines for flying squid, an abundant high seas resource that has been harvested only slightly since the international ban on high seas driftnetting went into effect in 1993. Until then, the Asian driftnet fishery yielded 300,000 metric tons per year worth roughly $1 billion in 1990. Industry reports said that about 15 Japanese vessels are already jigging in the region, as well as some from British Columbia. Nearly all of the catch is destined for Japan. Several species are considered of primary interest: red flying squid, neon flying squid, purpleback flying squid and diamond-back squid, which often exceeds three feet in length and weighs up to 50 pounds. Its large, tender, muscular mantle commands a premium price in Japan. Fishermen on watch Thousands of fishermen and lobstermen are being asked to join a new floating security network to help spot terrorist threats along Maine’s craggy coastline. The Kennebec Journal reports the Coast Guard is mailing notices to 9,000 Maine fishermen as part of its Coastal Beacons Program. "They’re the guys that are out all the time. They know when things are out of the ordinary," USCG spokesman Arn Heggers told the Journal. It is hoped that fishermen will tell them about anything suspicious, such as unfamiliar vessels transferring cargo on the water or unfamiliar people taking pictures of bridges or waterfront facilities. Demand for U.S. pollock increases Alaska longliners got a boost in their halibut catch to nearly 62 million pounds, up from roughly 58 million last year. The fishery will also open three days later than usual on March 18 to accommodate market opportunities. The season will end on Nov. 18. Pollock from the United States has become the major supplier to world markets. The director of the U.S. Surimi Commission said that declines of nearly 45 percent in Russian catches have resulted in a general shortage of both surimi and fillet blocks in the global market. Demand for U.S. pollock by European buyers has increased dramatically. Imports of fillet blocks to Europe last year were five times higher than in 2000. In order to respond to the increased demand, processors are focusing more on fillet blocks, which food manufacturers turn into fish portions and fish sticks, than on producing surimi. This year’s pollock quota in the Bering Sea is roughly 3 billion pounds, with an additional 1.2 million pounds coming from the Gulf of Alaska. That’s 3 percent higher overall than last year, "but this is not enough to compensate for landing declines seen in other fisheries," the director said.  

Salmons packs more omega-3s than tuna's 'Viagra of the Sea'

KODIAK -- The omega-3 fatty acids found in fish have been credited with everything from reducing heart attacks and some cancers to improving eyesight. Now, the U.S. Tuna Foundation is gleefully comparing canned tuna to "Viagra of the Sea." The group was referring to a new book by dietitian Ellen Albertson, "Temptations, Igniting the Pleasure and Power of Aphrodisiacs," which claims that diet changes can "awaken a sleepy libido." Albertson says one way to improve your love life is to eat more tuna fish sandwiches. In reviewing the book, the February issue of Prevention Magazine said: "If you use white albacore tuna, you up your intake of omega-3 fats. More and more researchers now believe that omega-3s help ward off depression, surely one of the worst enemies of feeling sexy." Thus the conclusion that eating more canned tuna lifts your spirits, resulting in a better love life. Canned tuna is the most widely consumed seafood product in the United States. Alaska’s salmon industry could easily ride on the coattails of the tuna folks’ sexy claims. For more than a decade, reports by health scientists all list salmon as containing more omega-3s than tuna. International Health News, for example, states that all fish are not created equal, and it’s important to choose fish with high levels of polyunsaturated fat. "Salmon scores well here. By comparison, albacore tuna and cod have considerably less of the good fatty acids and may not produce the result you need," a recent report states. Fatty acids are basic units of fat molecules, arranged as chains of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Fats are mixtures of different fatty acids. Essential fatty acids are not made by the body, but must be supplied by the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are highly polyunsaturated and are found mostly in higher-fat fish, such as salmon. It’s estimated that 85 percent or more of the people in the Western world are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids. If canned tuna can turn you on, eating canned salmon should result in a sexual revolution. Unwanted aliens Bio-invaders cost billions of dollars in damage to marine ecosystems, and if they take hold, in some cases, they can eliminate native marine and plant species. The unwanted aliens are, for the most part, tiny hitchhikers that are dumped along with the ballast waters of ships that traverse the world’s oceans. They are credited with being involved in 70 percent of native aquatic species extinctions in the last 100 years. Cornell University scientists reported three years ago that more than 30,000 non-native species cost the United States roughly $123 billion a year in economic loss. This includes $35.5 billion for alien weeds, $20 billion for insects, $19 billion for rats and $3 billion for zebra mussels alone. A more recent report by the Pew Oceans Commission said, "At least 7,000 different species of marine life are likely transported each day around the world. ... Ballast water carrying this wide array of non-native life arrives in the U.S. at the rate of 2 million gallons per hour." Studies around the world reveal a remarkable array of invaders, representing all of the major and most of the smaller groups of life. Certain viruses and the bacteria that cause cholera have also been detected in ballast water. The commission urged the government to quickly develop mandatory programs to attack the problem. There are some regulations already on the books to prevent introduction of exotic species into U.S. waters, but they are largely voluntary and mostly ignored. The Invasive Species Act of 1996 provided ships entering American ports with a three year window to undertake a voluntary program whereby coastal derived ballast water would be exchanged on the high seas, followed by re-ballasting with midocean water. The program went into effect in July 1999; however, during the first year only 12,170 of the 58,000 vessels arriving in U.S. ports had filed a mandatory reporting form. Attempts to stave off these stowaways have included in-hull filtration systems, heat treatments and biocides, all of which are either too expensive or harmful to the environment, or both. Now, the Fish Information Service reports that a group of industrial engineers at Sumitomo Heavy Industries in Japan has come up with a simple solution. The one element that sustains safe passage for the invasive stowaways, and which also promotes hull corrosion, is oxygen. Pumping nitrogen into the ballast tanks would displace the oxygen. One test showed that after introducing nitrogen for two days, the diminished oxygen environment resulted in significant population reduction: 79 percent of the tubeworms, 82 percent of the zebra mussels and 97 percent of the green crabs. On top of that, the rust and corrosion rate dropped by 90 percent, which translates to an average annual reduction in maintenance costs of $70,000. "It’s not perfect and it doesn’t kill everything," Mario Tamburri of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute told FIS. "But until international law mandates that ballast water contain no living organisms, why not require this technology that saves industry money and is also good for the environment?" Alaska’s waters are not exempt from the foreign invaders. "Up to a dozen species from Asia have been identified in the waters of Valdez and Prince William Sound from all the oil tankers over the years," said Bob Pierkowski, former head of Alaska Department of Fish and Game’s Mariculture Division. He added that state biologists are on the lookout for green crabs, which since 1990 have migrated from California to Washington. The tiny crab have wiped out all other crab they’ve encountered, including much larger species like Dungeness. "We expect to see them in Southeast Alaska. It’s not a matter of if, it’s a matter of when," Pierkowski said. Interestingly, the Pew report considers the thousands of Atlantic salmon escaping from fish farms in the Pacific Northwest among the bio-invaders.  

Bering pollock a fishing success story; Kodiak Tanner crab is not

KODIAK -- Late January marks the start of America’s biggest fishery, Bering Sea pollock. It’s also one of our nation’s best fish stories. Bering Sea pollock not only does great in world markets, but more importantly, thanks to good stewardship by fish managers, the stocks are healthy and at all time highs. Starting Jan. 20, Alaska’s trawl fleets set out their nets to gather a bounteous harvest of more than 3 billion pounds of pollock from the Bering. That accounts for roughly 30 percent of all fish landed in the United States and last year pumped about $800 million into Alaska’s seafood industry. That’s a lot of fish sticks. Trawl fisheries for pollock open on the same day in the Gulf, where another 220 million pounds are available for harvest. In other Alaska fisheries so far this year, by nearly all accounts, Kodiak’s Tanner crab fishery was a big blow out, both in terms of bad weather and scratchy catches. "It’s as close to being a rout as you can get," said Dave Woodruff of Alaska Fresh Seafoods. To make matters worse, much of the catch was "dirty crab," meaning very dark and covered with algae or barnacles. Woodruff, who advanced $2 a pound for the crab before he knew how bad it would look, said that price "was going to stretch him to the limit," as he scrambled to sell the crab to Japanese buyers, who purchase nearly all of the Kodiak catch. Meanwhile, the Bering Sea snow crab fishery also opened Jan. 15. By the following weekend, a fleet of 186 boats had hauled back about 2 million pounds out of a roughly 30 million pound quota. Fish managers in Dutch Harbor said the fishery was uneventful so far, although everyone was bracing for worsening weather. Crabbers there were getting $1.40 a pound for their catch, which will add up to a value of around $42 million at the docks. Alaska’s halibut harvesters will soon find out how much of the big flats will be up for grabs when that fishery opens March 15. The International Pacific Halibut Commission will decide if the Pacific coastwide catch in Washington, Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska, will be boosted to 74 million pounds, up from 73 million last year. Alaska longliners always get the lion’s share of the catch, and this year could be 61 million pounds, up from just more than 58 million in 2001. The pricey black cod, or sablefish, fishery also opens March 15, and an abruptly canceled season in Canada could boost the value of Alaska’s catch. Citing so-called "significant declines in abundance," the Department of Fisheries and Oceans ordered all gear off the water by Jan. 18. The department will assess the situation and decide if fishing for the roughly 8 million pound catch can resume at the end of the month. Alaska longliners typically get more than $3 a pound for their black cod, virtually all of which goes to Japan. There is a very limited supply of only about 25 million pounds of wild black cod each year in the whole world, most of which comes from Alaska. Seafood ratings The 16th annual survey done by SeaFood Business Magazine indicates that chefs, restaurants and grocery stores throughout the United States are optimistic about seafood sales this year. Here are some facts and figures: The supermarket industry posted its highest profits in 30 years for the 2000-2001 fiscal year, according to the Food Marketing Institute. Despite a slowing economy and increased competition from convenience and superstores, 128,000 supermarkets nationwide took in more than $453 billion in 2000. Kroger is the largest retailer with 2,328 stores, and operates full-service seafood departments in 1,500 of its stores. In all, seafood contributes 1.96 percent to total sales in our nation’s supermarkets. The National Restaurant Association projected that, even taking the economic slowdown into account, sales approached $400 billion last year, up more than 5 percent from the previous year. It’s the industry’s 10th straight year of sales growth. People in the food service industry predict that seafood sales will continue to strengthen because the population is getting older, and older folks eat more fish. Shrimp and farmed salmon are the two best selling seafood items in U.S. restaurants. What do restaurant operators look for when buying seafood? In order, they look for quality, service, price, variety and reputation. Their top five seafood sourcing issues are: availability, buying quality seafood, price, consistent supply and service.

Chicken of the Sea's pinks in a pouch bode well for Alaska salmon

The new line of pinks in a pouch being launched by Chicken of the Sea is good news for Alaska’s struggling salmon industry, as virtually all of the fish will come from Alaska waters. The San Diego-based international corporation announced that it would begin shipping premium pink salmon in 7.1 ounce vacuum-packed, foil pouches to U.S. retailers starting in January. The product follows on the heels of Tuna Salad Kits, which Chicken of the Sea introduced earlier this year. And as with its tuna, the company will support the launch of its new pink salmon pouches with a multimillion dollar, all-media advertising and promotional campaign. Chicken of the Sea pioneered skinless/boneless pink salmon in cans in 1985, and 80 percent of that product is eaten in the United States, said marketing director Van Effner. He added that the company buys millions of pounds of frozen pinks from Alaska each year for the canned pack, and they’ve already increased purchases to accommodate the new pouched product, a trend Chicken of the Sea expects to continue. "From time to time we buy fish from Russia if we run short of product, but more than 95 percent of the pink salmon we purchase comes from Alaska. We prefer doing business in Alaska," Effner said in a phone interview. Effner, who has made many visits to Alaska’s remote fishing sites, had some hopeful words for the wild salmon industry. "Like you, we’re in it for the long haul. We want it to work out for everyone. We’re committed to new products and into seafood in a big way, and that’s what Alaska is all about," he said. Actually, Chicken of the Sea is stealing a bit of Alaska’s thunder with its pouched salmon product. Kodiak-based Alaska Pacific Seafoods has been producing Gourmet Pink Salmon in a Pouch for six years and selling it primarily to food distributors across the United States and overseas. Alien aquatic weed alert The Fish and Wildlife also reports that a rapidly growing, invasive aquatic weed new to the United States could harm fishing, hunting, hydropower production and other industries. Salvinia molesta is already causing havoc in 12 states from California to North Carolina, and could spread to coastal inland waters of Oregon and Washington. "The weed floats on the water surface and grows at phenomenal rates, doubling the area it covers in less than a week," the agency told the Fish Info service. "Mats of Salvinia molesta may reach three feet thick, blocking sunlight to waters below and killing plants, bugs and fish. Small lakes could be covered in a matter of days, water works clogged, and eradication is no easy matter." Fish and Wildlife added: "Mechanical removal is nearly impossible, given the dense mats weigh around 36 tons per acre; shredding plants is not effective either given the plant’s ability to continue to grow from the smallest living portion. Herbicides have some promise, but are costly and most effective on younger plants and require repeated treatments, which underscores the need for the first line of defense: prevention." Lobsters as stolen property Police in Maine got a lot more than they bargained for when they recently stopped a car for speeding. According to the Bangor News, "Around 11 p.m. Wednesday, police stopped Doreen Beerman of Rockland for speeding and discovered 136 unrestrained live lobsters inside her car." Beerman, who was celebrating her 44th birthday, was arrested for allegedly operating a car while intoxicated and driving without a license. The police believed the lobsters were part of 245 pounds stolen from Maine Coast Seafood. Beerman was also charged with receiving stolen property and possession of lobster without a license. After her arrest, the roughly 200 pounds of live lobsters were removed from the car and put into crates, awaiting their rightful owner. Kodiak-based free-lance writer Laine Welch can be reached via e-mail at ([email protected]).  

Nearly 700 million pounds of seafood make Dutch Harbor top port for 12th year

For the 12th straight year, the port of Dutch Harbor/ Unalaska netted the top spot last year in terms of seafood landings. The National Marine Fisheries Service announced earlier this month that commercial fishermen delivered 699.8 million pounds of fish to Dutch Harbor, making it the port with the highest volume of landings in the nation. That’s an increase of 20.5 million pounds over 1999 landings. Cameron, La., was ranked as the No. 2 port for the quantity of landings in 2000, with 414.5 million pounds. New Bedford, Mass., claimed the title of the port with the greatest value at $146.3 million, an increase of $16.4 million from the 1999 value. Dutch Harbor/Unalaska was second with landings valued at $124.9 million -- a decrease of $15.9 million, while the Kodiak catch value was third at $94.7 million last year -- down from $104.8 million in 1999. The large increase in value of New Bedford landings for the second year was primarily because of sea scallops, with a landings value increase from about $70 million in 1999 to $83 million in 2000. New Bedford returns to the top value port, after a nine-year absence in part because of the 1994 collapse of the New England groundfish fishery and declining numbers of sea scallops. Part of the landings value decrease in 2000 at Dutch Harbor was because of a decrease in the opilio, or snow, crab catch. The all-time record landings for volume was 848.2 million pounds in Los Angeles in 1960, and the record for value was $224.1 million in Dutch Harbor in 1994. Chum salmon projections According to market analyst Bill Atkinson, the Hokkaido Fisheries Committee recently announced its projection for this year’s fall chum salmon fishery. The forecast calls for an estimated run of 36.7 million fish for the season, with the coastal catch about 21 percent higher than last year. Atkinson said importers only expect about 32,760 tons of frozen sockeye salmon to be available for the Japanese market from operations in North America this year. The majority of the supply will come from operations in Alaska -- about 28,640 tons -- with the balance expected from fisheries in British Columbia and Puget Sound. "The poor runs in most regions in Alaska are partly behind the limited supply of frozen sockeye in Alaska, although canned production also cut into the overall supply," Atkinson said. "The larger packers reportedly canned between 55 percent and 60 percent of the fish that they purchased this year. "This compares with preseason projections that only about 40 percent of the sockeye purchased would go into the can. With the increased canned production, only about 15,800 tons of frozen sockeye salmon is expected to be available from the Bristol Bay fishery this year." Farmed fish surge It’s a sad fact that farmed salmon from Chile continues to clobber wild fish in world markets. To get a steady dose of how dismal the situation really is, check out "Finning News," which provides daily updates on Chile’s fish farming operations. In July, for example, the report showed that farmed salmon and trout exports increased nearly 56 percent through May of this year, totaling nearly 150,000 metric tons, or a whopping 330 million pounds. "That means a lot when you consider that Alaska commercial fishermen harvested a total of 711 million pounds during all of last year -- that includes all species, even chums and pinks. Those 330 million pounds of farmed fish came from one country in five months," wrote John Van Amerongen, editor of the Alaska Fisherman’s Journal. Most of the Chilean fish -- 97,000 tons or more than 213 million pounds -- went to Japan, with the next biggest customer being the United States. The report also pointed out that Norway produced 470,000 tons of salmon last year, or more than 1 billion pounds. "Say what you want about antibiotics, pale flesh, lousy taste, polluted water and potential for massive die-offs, but somebody is buying these fish and eating them, especially when the supply is so huge and the price is so low," Van Amerongen said. Needless to say, the effect on Alaska’s wild salmon industry is a continued downward press on fish prices. That has a negative effect on everyone in Alaska, because there is a direct relationship between prices paid to fishermen and revenues collected from the seafood industry. According to the Alaska Department of Community and Economic Development, every two-cent decline in the dockside price of fish represents about a $1 million loss in state and local revenues. View from the East Coast An informal survey of seafood lovers on Cape Cod drove home the point that farmed fish is indeed dominating East Coast dinner plates. Not a single Alaska salmon was seen on major supermarket retail counters during a recent two-week vacation during July. Instead, customers were lined up to buy beautifully presented farmed salmon fillets, priced at $4.99 a pound. "We sometimes have salmon from Alaska," said a fish counter clerk at Stop & Shop, although he had no idea what kind of salmon it was, nor its origin. "But the quality is inconsistent and it looks kind of sad next to the farmed fish. Plus, most of our customers want fillets," he added. I posed a few questions to 10 individual seafood buyers, and here’s a sample of their answers: "When you think of Alaska seafood, what comes to mind?" Without hesitation, eight of the people responded "king crab," one said "scallops" and the other said "salmon." "If you’re buying salmon, do you care if it’s farmed or wild fish?" All said it doesn’t matter, and nine out of 10 said they wouldn’t know the difference. "Do you ever see Alaska salmon labeled as such in your local supermarkets?" The answer was a unanimous "No."

Here's what halibut and salmon, farmed and wild, bring at the retail counters

Prices paid to Alaska salmon fishermen continue to make lots of headlines, so it’s interesting to look at what the fish is fetching at retail counters across the Lower 48. Urner-Barry is the primary source that most market watchers turn to because it has been tracking U.S. food commodities since the early 1900s. A glance at its retail features over the July Fourth holiday showed these price trends per pound at major supermarkets for fresh salmon, both farmed varieties and Alaska wild, which includes salmon and halibut. In New York and New Jersey, Alaska salmon "silverbrite" fillets were priced at $2.99, farmed Atlantic steaks were at $3.99 and fillets at $4.99. In the New York metro region, farmed fillets were fetching $5.99. In Philadelphia and southern New Jersey, Alaska salmon steaks were featured at $3.99. In Boston stores, boneless farmed salmon fillets were priced at $3.99-$5.99, while bone-in salmon steaks were retailing at $3.99-$4.99. No Alaska salmon was mentioned. In Chicago, Atlantic-farmed salmon fillets were fetching $4.99-$7.99. Halibut steaks were listed at $7.69-$7.99. In Florida, both farmed Atlantic salmon and wild Alaska salmon were priced at $4.49 for steaks and $4.99 for fillets. In Atlanta, farmed salmon steaks were retailing for $4.99; Alaska halibut steaks were priced at $7.99. Finally, in Los Angeles, farmed Atlantic salmon was on retail counters at $4.99 for steaks and $5.99 for fillets, while Alaska halibut was bringing $6.99-$7.99 per pound. State forecasts on mark Projections for Alaska’s annual salmon harvests have "been in the ballpark more often than not" over the last decade. That’s according to the latest Salmon Market Bulletin, which reveals that in seven of the last 10 years, Alaska Department of Fish and Game forecasts have been within 17 percent of the actual harvest. Last year’s projection missed by only 10 percent, and the Bristol Bay forecast was within 8 percent of the actual harvest. The bulletin said that according to 2001 projections, chum catches are expected to decline from three years of record and near-record volume. The statewide projection is 15 million, down from a record 24 million last year. Pink catches are expected to rebound to 93 million, though there is uncertainty about the impact of massive over-escapement in 1999. The king salmon harvest is projected at 419,000, a 15 percent improvement from last year’s weak harvests. The coho projection is 4.8 million fish, more than half of which are expected to be caught in Southeast Alaska. License to krill Krill could soon become a source of oil for the fish feed industry. According to Fisheries Information & Services, Norwegian researchers have brewed up a first batch of fish oil and fish meal using krill and will test it at several of the country’s salmon farms. Snorre Tilseth, managing director of Norsildmel, the organization for sales and marketing of all fish meal and fish oil produced in Norway, stated recently that in five years, there won’t be enough fish oil on the market for fish feed producers. "Last year 866,000 ton of fish oil went to the aquaculture industry. This year I expect the figure to increase to 900,000 tons, while the total global production will be 1.1 million tons," Tilseth told "It is very interesting to look at krill as a source of marine oil for future requirements. We have done research into krill before, but that was 20 years ago." However, other researchers believe that due to the present lack of adequate large-scale harvesting methods and catch preserving problems, it would be a couple of decades before krill is harvested properly. It’s estimated that there are around 200 million tons of krill and other harvestable large zooplankton in Norwegian waters. Some krill fisheries are presently carried out in Antarctic waters, where it is processed on fishing vessels and sold as krill-meal. "It is an expensive product," said Tilseth, adding that some fishermen are interested in obtaining a "license to krill." Test kit clarification Ray RaLonde offered this important clarification to last week’s article on the new paralytic shellfish poisoning field test kit: The Jellett Biotek Mist Alert kit is a yes-or-no test set at 40 microgram of PSP toxin per 100 grams of tissue, one-half the level required by the Food and Drug Administration. The portability of the kit for field application makes Mist Alert useful for screening shellfish to determine toxin levels before harvest and a valuable research tool for beach monitoring of toxin levels in shellfish. The Mist Alert does not replace the mouse bioassay test required for all commercially harvested or farmed shellfish. The mouse bioassay remains the only FDA-approved test for detection of PSP, and commercial harvesters, processors, and shellfish farmers will still be required to follow existing regulations for submitting shellfish samples to approved laboratories for toxin testing. The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Seafood and Food Safety Lab is the only approved laboratory in the state for PSP testing.  

Japan imports record volume of salmon -- but it's farmed, not wild Alaska fish

Japan imported a record volume of salmon in the first four months of this year, increasing 33.5 percent compared with the same time last year. The Internet site Fish Information Service reported that most of the increase was because of a 33 percent increase in imports of farmed coho. The second largest increase came from farmed trout imports, which totaled 13,100 tons, an increase of more than 53 percent. "The United States is the absolute loser in the Japanese market, with exports down almost 40 percent during this period," FIS said. "The ’winners’ were Norway with 38.7 percent and Chile with 37.8 percent. In general, prices in the Japanese market are far lower this year than one year ago. The average price for frozen imported sockeye for the first four months of this year is the lowest average seen during the last five years." University of Alaska Anchorage fisheries economist Gunnar Knapp said that sockeye salmon last year accounted for only 20 percent of total Japanese salmon imports, down from 57 percent in 1993-94. Business mission planned The World Trade Center Alaska is planning a business mission to Chile, designed for seafood harvesters, processors, policymakers, transportation/logistics professionals, seafood product suppliers, educators and related industry professionals. The trip, which is scheduled for Nov. 3 to 11, will review supply chain and food distribution models, including site visits and executive briefings with professional associations, harvest sites, processing facilities, marketing and distribution companies, technology and telecom related and logistics companies in Santiago and Puerto Montt, according to a press release. For more information, contact the center at 907-278-7233. Farmed halibut update Intrafish reports that Norway’s investments in halibut farming is starting to pay off. According to the newspaper Aftenposten, the company Nutreco will produce 1,000 tons of farmed halibut to markets in the next two years. Another company, Nordic Seafarms, is reportedly producing halibut at a cost of $2.93 a pound and plans to sell it for $4 a pound. The newspaper said Stolt Sea Farm expects its halibut operation to break even this year after many years of running at a loss, and pegs production at 300 tons this year. "Developing a new species into a commercial product takes eight to 10 years," said Stolt’s Niels G. Stolt-Nielsen. According to the Norwegian Seafood Export Council, 37 percent of the halibut produced in Norway is distributed on the national market. The bulk of Norwegian halibut exports is sent to Great Britain, Germany and Sweden. Seal lions like herring reports that the scientific journal Nature has a report from the Prince William Sound Science Center stating that Steller sea lions avoid pollock and instead seek out herring. Infrared scanners tracking sea lions in their nighttime feedings in the Sound revealed the animals only preyed on herring, which gathered at night at depths of 32 to 105 feet, but never touched the pollock, which swim at depths of more than 325 feet day or night. "Despite the much greater abundance of pollock, the infrared system revealed that foraging by Stellers was exclusively on herring and was conducted only at night," said Gary Thomas and Richard Thorne of the Prince William Sound Science Center. According to, "This finding supports other evidence that the decline in the population of the endangered sea lions is not related to the Alaska pollock fishery."  

Some of season's Copper River reds, kings fetch higher-than-negotiated price

The season’s first reds and kings from Copper River returned higher prices to fishermen and saw buyers throughout the Northwest scrambling to be the first to feature the prized fish at their restaurants and retail counters. Red salmon fillets were reportedly flying out of Seattle stores at $12.99 a pound, while kings were bringing an unbelievable $19.99 a pound. Meanwhile, Copper River fishermen received $2.25 a pound for their red salmon and $3.25 for kings, which is up a dime from last year’s starting price. Those were the season’s minimum prices that the United Salmon Association and the Copper River Salmon Producers Association negotiated with two small Cordova buyers Copper River Seafoods and Prime Select Seafoods. CRSPA board member Bob Martinson said larger buyers had not agreed to those minimums; however, they were paying $2.75 for reds and $4.50 during the first opener on May 17 "because they wanted to get some of the early fish." "We’re hoping the majors will realize how cohesive our fleet (of 500 boats) is, and negotiate in good faith with us," he said. Looking ahead, he added that USA and CRSPA are also negotiating the state’s "first ever" chum contract, which would pay fishermen 38 cents a pound with extra one-cent bonuses depending on chum roe content. The mid-May harvest of salmon at Copper River makes a huge contribution to the local and state economy. Last year, there was concern that a push by urban, newly defined "subsistence" users, mostly from elsewhere in the state, would result in a delay of the first fishery until June 1 to allow more reds and kings up the river. A study done by University of Alaska/Sea Grant economists for the city of Cordova showed that delaying the early season fishery would result in a loss in volume of 79 percent of the commercial harvest for kings, or 34,143 fish, and 39 percent for reds, or 504,904 fish. Further, harvesters would lose 85 percent of the value of the kings, or $3.7 million, and 55 percent of the value for reds, or $9.8 million. In all, loss to fishermen, tender men, processing companies and workers, and freight and support services was pegged at more than $13.5 million. This "first tier" profile did not include losses to other local businesses and services. The state Board of Fisheries last December ruled against delaying the start of the Copper River fishery, and upriver "subsistence" users have vowed to fight the decision in court. In testimony before the board, one longtime local decried the expanding number of urban dwellers who descend upon upriver regions like Chitina in new SUV’s hauling trailers laden with four wheelers. "True subsistence users don’t require guides," he said. White House salmon As the worldwide controversy surrounding genetically modified fish and other foods continues, the White House is reportedly planning to serve genetically modified salmon at official functions. The Web site AlterNet reports that the move is intended to head off criticism by environmental and consumer groups that the altered foods are unsafe. "You really can’t tell the difference. It may be genetically altered, but it tastes just the same," White House chef Daniel Arreido told AlterNet, adding that the first family already consumes milk containing bovine growth hormone. The White House reportedly plans to debut pan-seared genetically altered super salmon and Texas-style corn pudding at a state dinner next month for French Prime Minister Lionel Jospin. AlterNet quoted Naomi Jurgen-Stoors, a spokeswoman for the activist group Healthy Planet, which supports mandatory labeling on all products containing genetically modified ingredients, as saying: "Our main problem with GM food, what we call ’franken food,’ is that its long-term impact on humans has never been tested. Now I guess we’ll just have to wait and see what happens to the first family." The idea to serve GM foods is credited to Vice President Dick Cheney. Retirees wanted A bill allowing retired state Department of Fish and Game staff to return to full-time work is awaiting the governor’s signature. Sponsored by Rep. Pete Kott, R-Eagle River, House Bill 242 was prompted by a steady loss of workers to federal and other agencies. The bill would allow retired employees to come back to work while keeping their current retirement benefits. According to Commercial Fisheries Director Doug Mecum, the department is experiencing a serious shortage of experienced fishery scientists and technicians, due in part to regular and early retirement. Mecum said repeated state budget cuts and the lure of better paying federal jobs have cost the division more than 20 employees in the past two years. Eighty percent of those workers have signed on with the Federal Subsistence Board or other National Marine Fisheries Service jobs, particularly those related to Steller sea lion studies. Mecum said some of the jobs pay nearly three times what state jobs pay. Sea lion survey Preliminary survey results indicate economic losses attributed to Steller sea lion conservation measures top $46 million for the Aleutian Island pollock and mackerel fisheries, and more than $17 million for the Gulf of Alaska pollock fishery during the past two years. These losses include wages, fish purchases from catcher vessels and tax revenues. Data from the National Marine Fisheries Service suggests that about 200 harvesting vessels, 20 shore-based processors and 35 at-sea processors may have been directly affected. As a result, Congress provided $30 million in disaster relief funds to help mitigate economic losses incurred among coastal communities throughout the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and Aleutian Island areas. In an effort to quantify the economic losses, the Southwest Alaska Municipal Conference retained Northern Economics, an economic consulting group based in Anchorage. Marcus Hartley presented the early findings at SWAMC’s spring conference in Unalaska in mid-May.

Halibut to tell scientists their secrets when first tags transmit data in mid-June

Defining "critical habitat" is a complex task these days, as fishery managers are required to take an entire marine ecosystem into account when making management decisions. Next month, information from tagged halibut could bring researchers increased understanding, at least for the big flats in the Gulf of Alaska. As part of a project to assess critical marine habitat in the gulf, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Alaska Biological Science Center is conducting an experiment on halibut using satellite pop-up tags. The $77,000 project, funded by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, began last fall when 10 large halibut were captured in Resurrection Bay and taken to the Alaska SeaLife Center in Seward, where the special tags were attached. The 3-inch, cigar-shaped tags, attached to the halibuts’ backs by a tungsten wire, resemble fishing lures. But that’s where any resemblance stops. Inside the tags are digital memory cards, along with sensors that can record water pressure, light and temperature for up to three years. In this case, however, the devices on five of the halibut are programmed to corrode their tungsten wires with acid on June 15 and float to the surface, where they will begin transmitting their stored information to passing satellites. The remainder of the tags are scheduled to detach from the fish in mid-November. According to project director Jennifer Nielson, researchers will then use the information to figure out where the halibut have been swimming all winter. The tags have been used on tuna and marlin nearer the equator, but this is the first test ever conducted so far north. The data that the tags yield will tell something about halibut behavior, especially their migratory patterns. If the prototype project proves to be successful, the satellite tags will eventually be applied to other fish species like ling cod and king salmon. Free streamers Longliners can take advantage of free streamer lines, thanks to the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service’s goal of helping fishermen avoid accidental takes of seabirds. While supplies last, paired streamer lines are available for free in Seward at Resurrection Bay Seafoods and Seward Fisheries, the Auction Block in Homer, Kodiak Marine Supply, the Department of Fish and Game in Sitka and from the Petersburg Vessel Owners Association. On a related note, the Washington Sea Grant Program is preparing research results from a two-year study evaluating the effectiveness of seabird avoidance measures, as well as recommendations for changes to the current seabird regulations. The presentation will be made to the North Pacific Fishery Management Council at its October 2001 meeting, according to Jim Balsiger, director of the National Marine Fisheries Service in Alaska. Help stop hoaxes Eleven search and rescue hoaxes in Alaska last year cost taxpayers an estimated $134,500, or an average of $12,300 per episode. That was part of an estimated $18 million in false alarms nationwide. The Coast Guard takes every mayday call seriously, and hoaxes could cause some devastating problems if a real emergency were occurring elsewhere. To try to stem the tide of prank calls, the Coast Guard is urging coastal states to pass their own laws to supplement federal rules that punish prank callers. Such legislation is pending in Rhode Island and Massachusetts. In New Jersey, creating "false public alarms" is illegal and punishable by up to five years in prison. The Coast Guard says Connecticut has penalties for maritime hoaxers, and Ohio also makes such calls illegal. "The situation is getting worse," said Commander Jim McPherson, a Coast Guard spokesman stationed in Washington, D.C. "It’s for the same reason people pull fire alarms and make false 911 calls," he said, but instead of trucks, "we send out jets and boats." The Coast Guard investigates an average of four suspected hoaxes a day nationally, with summer the busiest season. According to Sue Jorgensen, Alaska Fishing Vessel Safety Coordinator, very few of the pranksters are caught and even fewer are punished. The biggest problem is that many prank calls are done by juveniles, and such cases are rarely prosecuted in federal court. For example, New England’s top Coast Guard official cited a case on Cape Cod last April. "Two youths, ages 14-15, made a 45-minute hoax call costing taxpayers $14,500," said Rear Admiral George Naccara. Despite having signed confessions, the Coast Guard’s enforcement options were limited by the lack of a state law, he said. The hoaxers were given community service. About three in 10 distress calls in Rhode Island and Massachusetts are hoaxes, according to the Coast Guard. Without state penalties, it’s often hard for the Coast Guard to even threaten punishment.

As halibut comes in, prices slip at dock, not at store

Huge catches of halibut continue to cross Alaska’s docks since the fishery opened in mid-March. On April 25, for example, more than 726,000 pounds of the prized flats were delivered, the highest daily volume since a few days after the season opened on March 15. Starting on April 16, nearly 2.5 million pounds were landed throughout the state, for a total of nearly 9 million pounds delivered through April 27. That’s 15 percent of the Alaska catch limit of roughly 58 million pounds. The influx of fish has had a downward press on prices. In Kodiak, for example, prices at the start of the halibut fishery ranged from $2.85 - $3.25 per pound, then after the first week dropped to between $2.10 - $2.25. As of April 24, prices had dipped again to $1.75 1.80 for fish weighing 10-20 pounds, $1.90 - $2 for those weighing 20 to 40 pounds and $2.10 - $2.25 for fish weighing more than 40 pounds. Prices in Homer and Seward are usually at least 20 cents a pound higher, reflecting the fact that those ports are on the road system. Southeast prices are usually also somewhat higher than Kodiak due to closer proximity to Lower 48 markets. Conversely, prices at Westward Seafoods in Dutch Harbor were at $1.50 for fish under 40 pounds and $1.55 for larger sizes. While those prices might still seem respectable, they’re well below last year’s average price of roughly $2.60 a pound. The usual laws of supply and demand, however, don’t appear to be applying to Alaska halibut at most retail counters. There’s more halibut, prices to fishermen are lower -- but prices to American consumers have skyrocketed. Urner-Barry, the nation’s oldest tracker of prices for seafood and other commodities, reported prices through April 28 for fresh halibut steaks at major supermarket chains in Chicago at $10.79 a pound, Los Angeles at $7.99, Florida at $9.99 and Boston at $7.99. Closer to home, 10th & M Seafoods in Anchorage was selling steaks at $6.25 and fillets at $6.95, and at New Sagaya, halibut steaks were retailing at $6.99 and fillets at $7.99. Kodiak’s Safeway was continuing to sell halibut fillets at a whopping $9.99 a pound. "There’s no connection between what’s going on between retail and wholesale," grumbled one longtime buyer. "There are so many buyers and so many middlemen, they can simply go elsewhere (to buy fish.) They’re really holding our feet to the fire. Wholesalers try to work at a 3 to 5 percent profit margin and deal in high volumes, but now most of us are at zero. But we have no choice because we’re dealing with a perishable product, and we have to sell it. We’re all at the mercy of the guy buying the most fish and selling it the cheapest." What can be done about the apparent inequity between prices paid to fishermen and wholesalers and what’s seen in supermarkets? "Nothing," according to two Kodiak processors. Both said "retailers are the ones making the bucks with halibut, not the fishermen or wholesalers." Retailers could not be reached for comment. The lower prices will also be reflected in lower raw fish taxes paid to communities where the halibut is delivered. Meanwhile, Homer retains its lead as the nation’s No. 1 halibut port with just more than 2 million pounds crossing those docks at nearly 23 percent of the total Alaska catch. Seward follows at 1.85 million (21 percent), Kodiak at 1.2 million (13.5 percent), Juneau at just under 800,000 pounds (8.88 percent), Cordova at 636,000 pounds (7.13 percent), Petersburg at 572,000 pounds (6.4 percent) and Sitka at 467,000 pounds (5.24 percent). Alaska’s halibut fishery runs through Nov. 15. Omega-3 news Despite the Food and Drug Administration’s recent decree that more research is needed before health claims can be made about Omega-3 fatty acids found in many fish, studies in every country continue to find proof that eating such fish leads to a healthier life. In recent years researchers have claimed that eating fish lowers the risk of heart attacks, reduces depression, improves eyesight and even boosts mental capacity and eyesight in babies. An article in The New York Times revisited the American Heart Association’s recommendation that people should eat at least two servings of fish per week, claiming that doing so may prevent cardiac arrhythmia, as well as heart attacks caused by clotting. Another study examined 80,000 women and found that those who ate fish once a week reduced the risk of strokes by 22 percent, compared with those who ate fish just once a month. More than a dozen anti-inflammatory studies have shown that people with rheumatoid arthritis experience relief with regular eating of seafood, and fish oils were found to be especially effective in reducing joint stiffness and fatigue. A recent study in the New England Journal of Medicine showed that more than half of the patients with Crohn’s disease and chronic irritable bowel syndrome remained symptom-free if they took Omega-3 supplements along with medication. Kodiak-based free-lance writer Laine Welch can be reached via e-mail at ([email protected]).  

Kenai visitors center reels in '2001: A Fish Odyssey' art exhibition for summer

The largest fish art show ever in Alaska opened May 1 at the Kenai Visitors & Cultural Center. Dubbed "2001: A Fish Odyssey," the exhibit features the works of more than 100 Alaska artists and 14 artists from outside the state.  All mediums are featured, including fish skin basketry, wood carvings, fiber arts, three dimensional works, sculptures, pottery and much more. "Fish are central to our life in Alaska," said guest curator and art professor Gary Freeburg. "This exhibition examines our close connection with fish on a variety of different levels. I guess you could say that this show, pardon the pun, has guts." The exhibition will run through Labor Day. Live groundfish Fishermen in Oregon are finding an eager market for live groundfish. WorldCatch News reports that anglers are "wading into the lucrative business of selling live fish that are bound for glass tanks in chic California restaurants." Species in demand include lingcod, greenling and yellowtail flounder, which sell for about $4.50 a pound in San Francisco restaurants, compared with 40 cents per pound for dead fish. "It’s a new fishery. You can’t stop it," said Port Orford live-fish buyer Tony Cottor. "And it’s a money maker." About 20 commercial boats now engage in live-fish angling near Port Orford, and several charter boats also land groundfish in the area. The profit potential of the live fish market appeals to commercial anglers searching for ways to make money while waiting for the region’s salmon to recover, and after enduring poor crab and shrimp seasons. "The problem is we don’t know how abundant these species are," said Jim Golden, marine resources program director at the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. "The concern is that we could be overfishing these species without even knowing it." The most recent near-shore stock assessment by the National Marine Fisheries Service was completed in 1997, when the agency listed 47 near-shore species as "status unknown." It is known, however, that eight species of groundfish are considered overfished, and seven of them are rockfish species. Port Manager Alex Linke said he does not see an enduring value in the live-fish fishery and he questions its sustainability. But even if the port wants to stop live fishing, the anglers say it has no jurisdiction in fisheries management. Packaging ends smell ASDA, a supermarket chain in the United Kingdom, has launched new packaging that it claims ends the problems of fishy smells contaminating other items in the fridge. The new product, called Alpamer, is the result of 10 years of work by French scientists. It is a combination of polythene, aluminum, paper and linear low-density polyethylene. It is supplied in sheet form and can be cut to fit the fish exactly. The package is then heat-sealed, leaving the product leak- and odor-free. The packaging will maintain the fish at a constant temperature for up to two hours and is fridge and freezer ready. It is not damaged by extremes of temperature and will not crack or break. According to Intrafish, Alpamer has been used in ASDA stores on a trial basis over the last year. Surveys have indicated that 100 percent of customers were impressed by its odor-retardant properties, and 96 percent believed that it maintained the quality of the fish. The new packaging will now be used on all ASDA fish counters, and the company believes it will increase demand for fish.

Revenue fishing's a poor way to fund Fish and Game budget, caucus concludes

Test fishing is a poor way for Alaska Department of Fish and Game to pay for fisheries research. That was the consensus among legislators at a recent Fish Caucus meeting in Juneau. Also called "revenue fishing," the practice refers to the harvest and sale of fish or shellfish for the primary purpose of generating revenue. Originally, test fishing was conducted for research purposes, or to determine run strength. But as state legislators have ratcheted the Fish and Game budget down over the past decade, more costs are being covered by the sale of fish caught by vessels contracted by the department. "Laws for the Sea" reports that according to Commercial Fisheries Director Doug Mecum, since 1988 the department, under legislative direction, has been catching fish to sell for money to pay for activities ranging from aerial surveys to smolt counting. A tally Mecum prepared for the caucus showed that test fishing expenditures have increased from $1.6 million in fiscal 1992 to $2.7 million in the current year. He noted that about half of those amounts are paid to the harvesters contracted to catch the fish, as reported in "Laws." Rep. Fred Dyson, R-Eagle River, who organized the caucus session, has urged other lawmakers to educate themselves about revenue fishing. Dyson reportedly went to great lengths to make sure the department was not criticized for the practice. "ADF&G has not been sneaky. No one is saying the money raised is being used inappropriately. The department has been backed into the process by a lack of appropriations," Dyson said. However, Dyson and others believe the practice might benefit from some changes. A report completed last month by Bruce Gabrys of the United Cook Inlet Drift Association raised concerns that test fishing results in a loss to common property fisheries. It also notes that the department can depress fish prices with the rate in its contracts. Gabrys said test fishing amounts to a de facto tax on commercial harvesters. Since the department’s research benefits all user groups, he suggested that other user groups should contribute more to the cost of research. "Some group of legislators needs to decide what they think we should do," Dyson said after the caucus. "Maybe some broad tax or user fee, and I would hope that would be on all of the users of the stock, including sport fish, personal use and guided fisheries, as well as commercial fisheries to support the research that benefits the fish they utilize. My guess is we may see some legislation following one of those schemes." Fish oil and headaches Researchers claim that adding certain fish oils to the diet of adolescents helps reduce recurring headaches. A presentation at the Pediatric Academic Societies and American Academy of Pediatrics Joint Meeting in Boston described how 27 teens were given fish oil and olive oil supplements for two months. During the fish oil treatments, 87 percent said the number of headaches was reduced, headache duration was reduced in 74 percent of the cases, and severity was reduced in 83 percent of the teens. The olive oil treatments resulted in just slightly lower percentages. Nearly 93 percent of the test subjects said they would recommend both fish oil and olive oil to friends or relatives who suffer from frequent headaches. The researchers concluded that the overwhelming improvement in the teenage patients suggests that the use of fish and olive oils should not be dismissed as simply having a placebo effect. Scots add sushi to lunches Japanese sushi is being added to school lunches in Scotland. According to, the menu addition is part of an effort to provide a more healthy diet for school kids. Heart disease and obesity in Scotland are at an all time high, and it’s hoped that children will opt for healthier alternatives to the traditional diet of meat pies and deep fried foods. The nutritional plans are being spearheaded by the Glasgow City Council, which has already introduced Indian, Mexican and Chinese dishes as part of an award winning "Fuel Zone" school lunch program. "As Japanese cuisine is renowned for its nutritional content, it would be fantastic if youngsters decided it was something they would like to eat more often," said Glasgow lunch director Fergus Chambers. The Japanese have the lowest rate of heart disease in the world, and that is credited in great part to their diet. Along with being healthier, Chambers and others believe that foods like sushi are more interesting and fun.

Small-boat salmon fisheries the next to bear scrutiny of federal observers

Alaska has the strictest and largest fishery observer program in the world, primarily on large vessels that haul aboard huge catches of groundfish or crab. Observers work on board fishing boats throughout the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska, collecting the samples and data that give a sketch of what’s really going on out there. The information is used to provide state and federal fishery scientists and policy makers with the status and health of the various stocks, so they can manage the fisheries wisely and effectively. Federal law requires the government to collect data on all activities that affect marine mammals. It’s common knowledge that Alaska’s groundfish fisheries are bearing the brunt of such data collection, as they’re the ones accused of taking too much food out of the mouths of endangered sea lions. But as predicted, small-boat salmon fisheries in parts of Alaska will be the next to bear the scrutiny of observers, as the feds ramp up programs on how set and drift gillnets "interact" with marine mammals. "Our bottom line is to make stock assessments and to come up with an estimate of fishing mortalities and injuries," said Amy Van Atten, a project director for the National Marine Fisheries Service. "We’ll look at how much fishing is going on, where in the water column, and how long the nets are soaked and picked," she said. "We’ll also look at everything that’s caught in the net, and collect samples to see what the large predators are feeding on." Salmon fishery observations have been spotty at best in Alaska in the past 10 years. Some coverage began in Prince William Sound in 1990-91, but the program "kind of got lost," Van Atten said. A "reconnaissance study" was expanded in 1995 to observe set and gillnet and some small purse seine fisheries in regions of Kodiak, Bristol Bay, Cook Inlet, Southeast and Yakutat, she said. These are regarded by NMFS as "Category Two" fisheries, meaning they are known to have a moderate level of interaction with marine mammals. Interestingly, trawlers are listed as a "Category Three," which denotes little or no interaction. In 1999/2000, a small salmon observer program was conducted in Cook Inlet, and next up is Kodiak in 2002. NMFS recently postponed a pilot program from starting there this summer in order to allow the affected fishermen to become more involved in its design and implementation. The program is expected to deploy up to 15 observers to cover about 30 days of fishing. The delay will also give Van Atten more time to survey the region and give her "more confidence about what I can expect observers to realistically achieve, and what results I can obtain," she said. Van Atten said she knows there will be continued resistance to the salmon observer program. "But it’s a federally mandated program and we have our jobs to do. We have to ensure that marine mammals are not being killed while a fishery is ongoing," she said. Van Atten said she understands the salmon fishermen’s fears that they could be next to feel the squeeze of restrictions designed to protect sea lions. She offered this consolation to Kodiak salmon harvesters: "I don’t expect there to be a problem, as I believe there is a relatively small take of marine mammals. Sea lions have never been reported taken in a gillnet in Kodiak. There have been reports of harbor porpoises, harbor seals and sea otters. What the data will do is provide evidence to appease everyone’s mind -- the scientists, managers and fishermen. This is not a high profile program that’s intended to expose the fisheries to environmentalists." Van Atten said if there are interactions with marine mammals in Kodiak, it won’t shut down the salmon fisheries. "If there’s a problem, recommendations will be brought forth by industry and fishermen on how to reduce interactions," she said. "We’ll work cooperatively on how to adjust fishing techniques." NMFS will meet with Kodiak salmon fishermen starting this month to begin plans for implementing the observer program next summer. Halibut road show The Board of Fish is sending out a scouting committee to Sitka, Kodiak, Cordova and Homer this month to hear comments about proposed subsistence regulations for halibut. Last October federal fish managers adopted options that defined eligibility, gear and daily limits. Gear could include up to 30 hooks on a longline per angler, with daily limits of up to 20 halibut per day. At the same time, the feds tasked the board with coming up with more recommendations. The full Fish Board will meet May 7 to 8 to formally adopt recommendations on halibut subsistence regulations for specific areas of the state. The recommendations will be presented to the North Pacific Fishery Management Council at its June 2001 meeting in Kodiak. Sea lion studies Some of the most far-reaching research on Steller sea lions is taking place close to home. The Alaska SeaLife Center in Seward has a coveted federal permit to study Stellers in captivity, and researchers are undertaking some of the largest and most comprehensive programs ever attempted. Since so much of the controversy surrounding sea lions involves their diet, the center’s core research project involves long-term feeding trials on three captive Stellers. The program also has pioneered the use of using remote-controlled video cameras to monitor sea lions every day in the wild, in this case on a rookery 35 miles away. PETA protest "Fishing Hurts," and, "Seafood Is Murder on Fish" are two of the messages that People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals brought to the International Boston Seafood Show. Spokesperson Dawn Carr claims PETA advocates eradicating all forms of fishing, as well as the consumption of seafood. Carr said she believes that fish feel pain, have "neurochemical systems" like humans and sensitive nerve endings in their lips and mouths. Carr was recently quoted in The Wall Street Journal as equating serving seafood at the National Aquarium to "eating poodle burgers at a dog show."  

Price of salmon at the dock is just the beginning of what fish will eventually cost

Salmon fishermen often wonder why there is such a large difference between the prices they get and the prices they see quoted in markets, both at home and abroad. The Salmon Market Information Service offers this generalized background: A sale price has three major elements. These are the cost of fish, cost of manufacture and cost of shipping. The starting point for cost of fish is the ex-vessel price, the amount paid to fishermen at the dock. This price is not adjusted for taxes paid by fishermen. Cost of fish is the processor’s cost of raw material, adjusted for recovery rate. The raw fish tax of 3.3 percent is factored in, but no other expenses involved in making a finished product are included. To calculate the cost of fish, the amount paid is divided by pounds of finished product. If a processor bought 100 pounds of sockeye to make fillets, he would get 53 pounds of finished product. If he paid $1 per pound ex-vessel plus 3.3 percent tax, his cost is $103.30. Divide that by 53 pounds to calculate cost of fish: $1.95 per pound in this case. Cost of manufacture is the total of cost of fish, plus all other expenses involved in turning raw fish into finished product, packaged for shipment. Cost of manufacture is normally just called cost and is expressed in cents per pound of finished product. Information on processors’ cost of manufacture is not available to the public. Some processors are willing to share this information with fishermen and others, but most consider it confidential. Once fish has been purchased, processed and packaged, it is ready to be shipped. Shipping is the final element of what makes up a sale price, and is one of the most important items in a sales contract. When a seller and buyer agree on a price, that price includes the cost of getting it to a specific location. In some cases, price is "FOB plant" meaning there is no shipping cost included. In other cases the sale price includes shipping the product several thousand miles. There are 13 standard shipping terms that define exactly how far product will be shipped and exactly what expenses will be paid by the seller in the process of getting it there. Some of the most common are: FOB, meaning freight on board. The seller pays for the cost to deliver the goods to a named port of destination. If it’s FOB Seattle, for example, it means the shipper pays the cost of freight to that port. CFR means cost and freight, in which the seller pays cost of goods and freight to the named port of destination. The more common term used is C and F. CIF means cost, insurance and freight. The seller pays cost of goods, freight and insurance to bring the goods to the named port of destination, such as CIF Japan. FAS means free alongside ship, and the seller pays cost of goods, insurance, inland freight and all other expenses to deliver the goods alongside the vessel at the named destination. U.S. government data define value of seafood exports as FAS port of export, meaning the value is affected by point of departure from the country. A case of salmon exported via Boston, for example, will have higher value than if it left the country from Seattle. Value of the Boston-departure fish includes the cost of shipping it 2,500 miles from Seattle to Boston. More eco-label fish The Marine Stewardship Council has announced that the New Zealand hoki fishery has met its standards for a sustainable and well-managed fishery. The certification allows products from the fishery to bear the MSC sustainability eco-label. The hoki fishery is the fourth fishery certified so far by the MSC. More than two dozen fisheries are undergoing the certification process, including Alaska’s pollock fishery, which is the largest fishery in the United States. Other fisheries include South Georgia Patagonian Toothfish and the Burry Inlet Cockle Fishery in Southwest Wales. Last year, Alaska salmon was the second fishery to receive MSC certification. Hawaiian fleet idled A court order shutting down the Hawaiian longline fleet of 115 vessels went into effect on March 14. The fleet will remain inactive until May 31, in accordance with an Aug. 4 ruling by U.S. District Judge David Ezra. WorldCatch reports that the judge could lift the closure following the completion of an updated environmental impact statement for the fishery by the National Marine Fisheries Service, which is expected to be completed by April 1. Resolutions have been drafted in both houses of the Hawaiian Legislature to urge Ezra to delay the closure. Western Pacific Fishery Management Council spokesperson Sylvia Spaulding said because the Hawaiian fleet operates on just a 7 percent profit, yielding a $50 million fishery in landed value, the closure would have a severe economic impact on the industry. "Right now, each day the fleet lands $180,000 worth of fish," she said. The closure is expected to cause severe repercussions in seafood markets, not only in Hawaii, but also on the U.S. mainland. Hawaiian markets are likely to be empty of fish for at least three weeks. Affected species include yellowfin, albacore and bigeye tuna, swordfish, Opah, Ono and other South Pacific species. Prices for tuna and other species could shoot up by more than 30 percent to 40 percent in the coming weeks, according to Roger Tasaka of Hilo Fish in Honolulu.  

Fewer sockeyes, chum part of state's forecast for this year's salmon season

Alaska’s salmon industry could get a boost in world markets if early projections for this season’s harvest hold true. State number crunchers are forecasting a fishery that’s similar to last year’s catch, with two important exceptions -- fewer sockeye and chum salmon. Preliminary projections peg the statewide harvest this year at roughly 142 million fish, down from last year’s forecast of 153 million. The actual catch fell well below that number, however, coming in at 136 million salmon worth $272 million at the docks. The numbers are still being tweaked, but state fish managers expect the following: 419,000 king salmon (up from last year’s catch of 360,000); 4.78 million coho (compared with last year’s catch of 4.2 million); only 15.3 million chum salmon (well below the 2000 take of nearly 25 million); 28.7 million sockeye (down from last year’s harvest of 33.5 million reds); and nearly 93 million pinks (up from 74 million last year). Of course, the only sure thing about preseason projections is that they’re likely to be wrong. Fishery scientists point to major regime shifts in the Bering Sea and North Pacific that directly affect salmon survival. That’s likely to continue to cause trouble for many species, most notably chums and king salmon in Western Alaska regions. The world’s biggest red salmon run at Bristol Bay also appears to be experiencing negative affects, presumably from changes in ocean conditions. That region is projected to once again yield a reduced harvest of just 17 million fish, down from roughly 21 million last year. Meanwhile, some Alaska fishermen are urging the federal government to restrict U.S. imports of Chilean farmed salmon during the prime harvesting months of May through September. The United Fishermen of Alaska, which represents 24 fishing groups, claims Chile is flooding the U.S. market with lower priced salmon, thereby driving down prices for wild fish. Chile accounted for 49 percent of all U.S. salmon imports last year, up from 38 percent in 1999. According to Chris McDowell of the Salmon Market Information Service, Chile is the leader in salmon imports by a margin of 39 percent over its closest competitor, Canada. The two countries combined accounted for 83 percent of salmon import volume last year, or nearly 273 million pounds. McDowell said 91 percent of Chile’s volume is salmon fillets, compared with 16 percent for Canada. U.S. imports of Chilean salmon grew 229 percent between 1995 and 2000, while imports from Canada grew 60 percent during the same period. Call for better science Alaska legislators unanimously passed a resolution asking the National Marine Fisheries Service to use better science when curtailing fishing in the North Pacific. HJR 10, introduced by freshman representative Drew Scalzi of Homer, also declares legislative support for the restrictions now in place resulting from the controversial "biological opinion" on Steller sea lions published by NMFS last November and asks that agency to work with the North Pacific Fishery Management Council to develop new regulations by the end of next year. The resolution declares that the reasons for declines in the Steller population are "poorly understood." It also states that NMFS "lacks an adequate scientific basis" for its regulations, "and has not explained why the restrictions are scientifically or legally necessary." The resolution further declares that the restrictions resulted in closures to the majority of the groundfish fisheries, caused losses of $170 million to fishing fleets and "immeasurable" economic losses to other businesses, harvesters, their families and in state and local tax revenues. The resolution now goes before the Senate Resources Committee. Halibut farming Halibut will be the next large-scale operation for fish farmers. That’s according to international aquaculture expert John Forster, who presented his findings recently to the Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute. While technological and biological problems will prevent halibut from making it to market in large quantities in the next five years, Forster said after that all bets are off. According to the weekly publication Laws for the Sea, when asked if farmed halibut could "totally trounce wild halibut" in the next 20 years, Forster answered without hesitation: "Absolutely. I think halibut has it, within that time scale, to be a major farmed fish." He also suggested the time frame could be far shorter. A study on global prospects for halibut farming done by Forster for the state of Alaska in 1999 projected world production could reach 6.2 million pounds this year, and he said he stands by that estimate. Halibut farms are now operating in Norway, Iceland, Scotland and Nova Scotia, to name but a few places. The University of Maine is funding research and development of halibut farms in that state. Forster said halibut has many natural features that make it appealing to fish farmers. It utilizes feed very efficiently, meaning it’s very cost effective to grow in a farm environment and is also very resistant to common marine diseases.

Fisheries specialist leaves organic salmon label legacy

Industry advocate Kate Troll has left her job as fisheries specialist with the state Department of Community and Regional Affairs. During her three years on the job, Troll led the charge to make sure wild seafood would be included in new national organic standards. "Kate not only kept the door open, but went through the door on that one," a co-worker said. Troll also was involved from the beginning with the Marine Stewardship Council’s eco-labeling program, which last year certified Alaska salmon as coming from a healthy fishery. "We made sure our sustainable management of Alaska salmon was duly recognized. It’s nice to see some of the processors stepping up and putting that label on their products," Troll said. Troll also helped launch a popular program that provides marketing grants for new salmon products. Prior to her job with the state, Kate was director of the Southeast Seiners Association and United Fishermen of Alaska. Her replacement is Glenn Haight. Demerits force suspension Bristol Bay driftnetter Trygve Gabrielson of Walla Walla, Wash., won’t be out salmon fishing with the rest of the fleet this summer. Gabrielson is the first commercial fisherman to have his limited entry permit suspended for accumulating too many demerit points. Under a 1998 law, harvesters who receive more than 12 points over a three-year period lose their permits for one year. Gabrielson was charged with fishing during a closed period in Egegik and fishing before and after legal fishing periods. Sixteen demerit points results in suspension for two years, and more than 18 points results in three years on the beach. Fish caucus returns Watch for the resurrection of a legislative Fish Caucus, according to several policy-makers in Juneau. The group will comprise an informal mix of lawmakers and seafood industry representatives who will meet to discuss commercial fishing bills and issues. Rep. Fred Dyson, R-Eagle River, said the idea has been met "with a significant amount of enthusiasm," according to the weekly fish watch publication "Laws for the Sea." Sen. Alan Austerman of Kodiak and Rep. John Harris of Valdez also plan to participate. Enforcement funding Slashed budgets have forced the Fish and Wildlife Protection Division to use a "rob Peter to pay Paul" approach to both sport and commercial fisheries enforcement personnel and patrols. Agency director Joel Hard told the House Finance Committee that Bristol Bay takes 20 percent of total enforcement personnel for one month, while many other major fisheries are going on as well. "This example is not the exception throughout the year, it’s the rule," Hard said. Fish and Wildlife Protection has a statewide staff of 237 to patrol Alaska’s 36,000-mile coastline, plus lakes and rivers. Shellfish sells Americans love mussels, and per capita consumption has increased 250 percent in the past five years, from 880,000 pounds to 2.2 million pounds per month. WorldCatch reports that Terry Callery of Great Eastern Mussel Farms of Tenants Harbor, Maine, the largest mussel producer in the United States, says that American consumers are just learning what most of the world already knows -- that mussels are inexpensive, versatile and delicious. He says, "Mussels have grown beyond what has been an ethnic (in Belgium, Latin and Asian countries) appeal and are now a mainstream item in the U.S. supermarkets." The industry’s marketing efforts are a major reason for the popularity surge in consumption. "There is no question as to the availability of the product grown under controlled conditions. We only harvest what we can sell, and we always have what we need to sell," he said. "Because of this market stability, retailers can confidently advertise mussels to get people to the seafood counter." The growing popularity of mussels echoes the gain made by other aquaculture-based seafoods. Since 1987, due to the increase in aquaculture production, the per capita consumption of salmon is up 285 percent, shrimp is up 31 percent and catfish is up 96 percent.

State scientists urge federal Steller plan go back for improvement

Go back to square one and come up with a better plan, is the recommendation Alaska scientists are making to federal fish managers. At issue is the hotly disputed BiOp or biological opinion, on Steller sea lions, which states that commercial fisheries jeopardize recovery of the endangered animals. The document proposes "reasonable and prudent alternatives" that drastically curtail pollock, Atka mackerel and Pacific cod harvesting in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The protective measures were scheduled to take effect this month, but last-minute congressional action delayed them by six months. "I’ve not read a document generated by an agency like the National Marine Fisheries Service before that had as many shortcomings as this BiOp," said state biologist Gordon Kruse, head of the Alaska Steller Sea Lion Restoration Team. In its six recommendations, the scientific review team states that the alternatives outlined in the BiOp are "not justified based on the data and analysis provided." The group notes that fishing closures in many areas were based on historical data that goes back three decades and recommends that contemporary data on present-day fisheries should be included in this analysis. The restoration team recommends delaying the implementation of an experimental management plan until "a better one has been developed," and states that any regulations in 2001 should be considered temporary. The NMFS has released its proposed emergency rules to the North Pacific Fishery Management Council in order that the fisheries can open on schedule. The basic rules would: * Prohibit all directed groundfishing within three miles of sea lion haul-outs. * Modify previous rules to allow up to 60 percent of the catch of pollock and cod to take place in the winter, rather than 40 percent. This is important because the valuable roe fishery takes place in the winter. * Reduce the Gulf of Alaska pollock catch quota by 10 percent. * Limit Bering Sea pollock catches within the conservation areas to the levels they were in 2000. * Close the critical habitat areas defined in the BiOp as of June 10, rather than immediately. This will provide more time to review the science behind the fishery closures and permit the NPFMC to suggest modifications. Fish and Alzheimer’s A new study in the U.S. journal "Lipids" claims that eating fish might ward off Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. The study, done on 70 test subjects at the University of Guelph at Toronto, found that Alzheimer’s sufferers all had lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid in blood samples than did elderly subjects with normal cognitive functioning. DHA and other omega-3 fatty acids are found in high concentrations in many fish species, including tuna, salmon and trout, and have been found to lower incidences of cardiovascular disease, depression and attention deficit disorder. "Our research suggests that the need to increase fish, fish products or other sources of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet of both the population at large and the elderly seems prudent. We should all be eating more fish," said team leader Julie Conquer. Fish shop attacked The Independent of London reported that fish and chips shops have become the latest target of animal rights activists. A letter bomb packed with nails exploded at a shop in North Wales, and it’s suspected that the perpetrators are members of the Animal Liberation Front. Previous targets have included animal testing laboratories. Robin Webb, spokesman for the ALF, said: "When one looks at the meat industry in this country ... there is what is supposed to be humane slaughter. With the fishing industry, there is no such thing. They are dragged out of the water into an alien environment in which they slowly die. There is no pretense of humane slaughter."  

Proposed regulations could endanger Alaska's shellfish, plant farm industry

Aquaculture is in its infancy in Alaska, but shellfish and plant farmers fear proposed regulations will doom the slowly growing industry. A few weeks ago the state Department of Fish and Game put growers on notice that it wants to limit the location of farms and require detailed information about native species living near potential sites. Under the proposed regulations, the state could prohibit a clam or oyster farm if it might disrupt shorebirds, milling salmon or threatened wildlife within a critical habitat area. Farms would also be banned from places that might be used for cultural or ceremonial purposes or for commercial fishing. Shellfish farmers believe these restrictions could make any beach or cove in Alaska off-limits. Proposed quarantine rules for transferring species like scallops and mussels from one location to another would make such farming illegal, the farmers claim. Aquaculture has been legal in Alaska since 1988, and there are now 39 farms in operation. Eleven farms are in Southeast, and 28 are in the Southcentral region, primarily in Cook Inlet. Alaska aqua farmers grow, in order of importance, oysters, blue mussels, little neck clams, scallops and bull kelp. In 1998, the combined value of those products totaled $463,776. The harvest of 892,366 oysters was worth the most, at $367,261. Alaska shellfish farmers say the proposed regulations are proof that the state has a philosophical bias against aquaculture. State officials however, claim they are just trying to balance competing needs, including concern over native species and demands from commercial and recreational fishermen. Comments on the proposed regulations will be accepted through Feb. 12. Board seeks fishermen Now that new federal subsistence rules are muddying our waters, fishermen are being encouraged to apply for membership on advisory councils that make recommendations to the Federal Subsistence Board. Thirty-four appointments will be made this year to fill seats on 10 regional councils, according to Mitch Demientieff, chairman of the board. "The regional councils are the crucial link between subsistence users and the Federal Subsistence Board, as their recommendations carry a great deal of weight in decisions regarding subsistence," he said. To be eligible for membership, an applicant must be a resident of the region he or she wishes to represent, knowledgeable of local and regional subsistence uses of fish and wildlife resources, willing to attend at least two regional council meetings each year, usually in October and February, and Federal Subsistence Board meetings on occasion. Responsibilities of the regional councils include reviewing and making recommendations to the Federal Subsistence Board on proposals for regulations, policies, management plans and other subsistence related issues on federal public lands within the region. Council and alternate members are appointed to three-year terms and are reimbursed for related expenses. Federal Subsistence Management Regulations apply only on federal public lands and waters, including limited marine waters, in Alaska. These lands and waters include national wildlife refuges; national parks, monuments, and preserves; national forests; national wild and scenic rivers; and national conservation and recreation areas. Pollock pride Following closely on the heels of Alaska salmon, pollock could be the next to get an ecological stamp of approval from the Marine Stewardship Council. The At-sea Processors Association is seeking certification of the Bering Sea pollock fishery under the rigorous environmental standards developed by the MSC. Alaska salmon in September became the first U.S. fishery to receive the group’s showy eco-label. The label assures consumers that Alaska salmon are harvested in a sustainable way from a healthy environment. To date, the only other seafood in the world to receive the MSC certification are the Western Australian rock lobster and the Thames River herring. To receive certification, MSC requires that a fishery must be conducted in a way that does not take more fish than can be replenished naturally, or kills other species through harmful fishing practices. Secondly, the fishery must operate in a manner that ensures the health and diversity of the marine ecosystem on which it depends. Finally, the fishery must respect local, national, and international laws and regulations for responsible and sustainable fishing.  


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