Laine Welch

FISH FACTOR: Overall salmon value jumps in 2019; Kodiak gets Tanner fishery

Alaska’s 2019 salmon season was worth $657.6 million to fishermen, a 10 percent increase from the 2018 fishery. Sockeye salmon accounted for nearly 64 percent of the total value, topping $421 million, and 27 percent of the harvest at 55.2 million fish. Those are the lead takeaways in a summary from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game that reveals preliminary estimates of salmon harvests and values by region. The final values will be determined in 2020 after processors, buyers, and direct marketers submit their totals paid to fishermen. Pink salmon were the second most valuable species representing 20 percent of the total dockside value at $128.6 million, and 62 percent of the harvest at just more than 129 million fish. Chum salmon accounted for 10 percent of the value at $63.8 million and 9 percent of the harvest at 18.5 million. Coho salmon contributed about 5 percent of the fishery value at $29.6 million and 2 percent of the harvest at 3.8 million fish. The chinook salmon harvest of just more than 272,000 was worth $14.4 million to fishermen, the third lowest value since limited entry began in 1975. Salmon prices for 2019 took a dip for all but sockeyes, which averaged $1.45 per pound, an increase from $1.33. The average price for chinook was $4.48 per pound, down from $5.98 in 2018. Cohos at $1.15 dropped from $1.34; pink salmon at 30 cents declined from 45 cents, and chums at 49 cents took a big dip from the 78 cents paid on average last year. The price drops, especially for pinks and chums, likely stemmed from the huge Russian harvest that was expected to approach 1.8 billion pounds this year. That compares to a 2019 Alaska salmon catch of just more than 872 million pounds. Average salmon weights this year were 11.84 pounds for chinook, up from 11.59 pounds in 2018. Sockeye weight of 5.24 pounds was down slightly from 5.26 pounds. Coho salmon averaged 6.77 pounds, down from 7.42; pinks averaged 3.27 pounds, down from 3.76 and chum weight at 7.07 pounds declined from 8 pounds on average. At Southeast Alaska, fishermen caught 32.2 million salmon valued at more than $101.8 million. That compares to 21.2 million fish valued at $133.6 million in 2018. Prince William Sound fishermen harvested 57.75 million salmon this valued at just under $115 million. Last year’s take was just more than 29 million fish valued at nearly $95 million. At Cook Inlet, fishermen caught more than 4.3 million salmon valued at nearly $23 million. That’s a slight improvement over the nearly 3.3 million fish valued at $18 million in 2018. Bristol Bay fishermen had a total salmon catch of nearly 44.5 million salmon of which almost 43 million were sockeyes. The value of more than $306.5 million was a record and compares to 43.5 million fish worth $281 million at the docks in 2018. Kodiak’s salmon fishery produced 35.7 million fish valued at $47 million. That compares to fewer than 9 million salmon worth $27.8 million last year. At Chignik, fishermen fared far better with a catch of 3.5 million salmon valued at $8 million. Last year harvesters took just more than 1,000 salmon (only 128 sockeyes!) worth less than $4,000. At the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands region, a bumper catch of nearly 21 million pinks in the southern district pushed the total salmon catch to nearly 27 million salmon valued at more than $49 million. Last year fishermen there took just more than 6 million salmon worth more than $29 million. On the Yukon, fishermen took 561,644 fish, mostly chums, for a total fishery value topping $2.5 million. That compares to more than 1 million salmon valued at nearly $4.7 million in 2018. Norton Sound harvesters landed 381,124 salmon worth just more than $2 million at the docks. That compares to 540,796 salmon valued at $4 million last year. At Kotzebue, fishermen caught 493,340 salmon, nearly all chums, valued at more than $1.5 million. That’s down from 695,000 fish last year, worth nearly $2.3 million at the docks. Once again, there was no salmon fishing opportunity for fishermen at the Kuskokwim. The region’s Community Development Quota group, Coastal Villages Region Fund, abruptly closed its plant at Platinum a few years ago. No buyer means no commercial salmon fishing. Kodiak gets some crab It’s a go for Kodiak’s Tanner crab fishery, albeit a small one, but better catches aren’t far off. The mid-January fishery will have a combined 400,000 pounds catch limit in two areas, the minimum to open a fishery. At average weights of 2.2 pounds, the fishery should produce 182,000 crabs. That’s down from a harvest of 615,000 pounds last season. Crabbers are tapping on the tail end of a big Tanner year class from 2013, said Natura Richardson, assistant area manager for the westward region at the Alaska Department of Fish and Game office at Kodiak. “The east side’s going to have a 300,000-pound harvest and the southeast is going to have 100,000 pounds. And particularly on the east side, this definitely is fishing on the same crab that they’ve been targeting for the last two seasons,” she explained. “We first saw this big cohort from 2013 in the survey, and that’s what we fished on in 2018 and 2019. And 2020 is probably going to be the last hit on this specific cohort. Despite the low catch, she said managers don’t expect the fishery to go fast. “We don’t have any conservation concerns because there are so many mature crabs in the water that we still feel that we are leaving a good standing stock to reproduce,” she said. (Only mature male crabs can be retained for sale.) “But because of that people are going to be seeing a lot of non- target crab and not as many legal crabs, so it is probably not going to be really hot and heavy with high catches per pot. I think that it’s going to be a little bit more work to get to the legal males.” Looking ahead, the future bodes well for westward region Tanners. Surveys have been tracking the biggest pulse of crab they’ve ever seen for several years, and the crabs seem to be growing faster than usual. It can take more than five years for the crab to grow to harvestable size. “The next pulse in the water has definitely retained,” Richardson said. “We saw them in the survey last year and again this year. So we have a lot of hope that they will continue to track through the population. They have survived at a higher rate relative to the previous 2013 pulse, so that definitely looks promising for future fisheries.” The big pulse of crab should enter the fishery within a couple of years. Richardson agreed that the 80 percent cod crash in the Gulf last year might be a reason that the recruits are showing better survival, as cod eat lots of small crab. Fisheries at Chignik and the South Peninsula will remain closed although the outlook for those regions appears hopeful. Last season 82 crabbers dropped pots for Tanners at Kodiak. The statewide average price was $3.94 per pound. By the way, Tanner crab is spelled with a capitol “T” because it is named after discoverer Zera Luther Tanner, commander of the research vessel Albatross that explored Alaska waters in the late 1800s. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Roadless Rule repeal gets pushback; halibut data on tap

The federal government’s plan to raze more roads through the Tongass National Forest is facing strong headwinds from fishermen, Native groups and coastal communities throughout Southeast Alaska. More than 220 Southeast Alaskan fishermen signed a letter to the Trump Administration last week opposing the abrupt push to exempt the Tongass National Forest from a “Roadless Rule” in place for over a decade. The exemption would release more than 9 million acres from protection and open nearly 200,000 acres to logging. The U.S. Forest Service made the announcement on October 15 that it is seeking a full exemption from rules that ban more road building in the nation’s largest forest. Alaska would be the only state exempted from the current federal law. The fishermen’s letter, spearheaded by the Sitka Conservation Society and Alaska Longline Fishermen’s Association, was sent to U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue telling him that fishing is the backbone of local economies and it relies on intact watersheds and salmon spawning grounds in the Tongass, which produces 80 percent of the salmon caught in the Southeast region. The push has quickly generated support from other fronts. The Skagway Borough Assembly passed a resolution last week in support of maintaining the Roadless Rule, citing, among other things, the impact logging could have on tourism. “I wonder what happens to that experience when cruise ships are passing by clear cut areas, or when cruise ships dock in a port and people take a flight through an area that has been clear cut or a place that you used to be able to fish like I’ve done in Baranoff that you can no longer do because the stream has been compromised,” said Mayor Andrew Cremata as reported by radio station KHNS. Likewise, six tribal governments issued a joint statement condemning the roadless exemption. They include the Angoon Cooperative Association, Central Council of Tlingit &Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska, Hoonah Indian Association, Hydaburg Cooperative Association, and the Villages of Kake and Kasaan. Their statement accused the federal agencies of ignoring the concerns of the tribes and said they were “deeply disappointed” by the process, according to the Juneau Empire. The roll back of the Roadless Rule has the strong support of Alaska’s congressional delegation and “every statewide elected official in Alaska supports an exemption from the regulation,” wrote Sen. Lisa Murkowski in a Sept. 25 opinion piece in the Washington Post called “Why I support Trump’s proposal to lift restrictions in the Tongass.” “The one-size-fits-all Roadless Rule is an unnecessary layer of paralyzing regulation that should never have been applied to Alaska,” Murkowski wrote, adding that the rule has hurt the timber industry and also affects “mining, transportation, energy and more.” “When combined with national monument and other natural-setting land-use designations, more than 13 million acres of the Tongass are already explicitly restricted from resource development or are required to be managed as roadless areas. That’s nearly 80 percent of the forest,” Murkowski wrote. “It is also critical to understand that all of the designations listed above, and all of the protections they afford, will apply to the Tongass regardless of what happens with the Roadless Rule.” That doesn’t convince Sitka fisherman Eric Jordan, who was highly critical of the way in which the Forest Service began working on new rules shortly after Gov. Michael J. Dunleavy met with Donald Trump aboard Air Force One in July. (That meeting also resulted in the abrupt pullback of proposed protections for the Bristol Bay watershed by the EPA.) “Their record is one of irresponsible top down management without listening to their constituents,” Jordan said in a phone interview, adding that more people are actively meeting to make sure their voices are heard. “People are taking notice of the draconian policies of this state and Trump’s leadership and there’s going to be consequences at the polls and in the courts,” Jordan said. “There will not be logging activities that they are envisioning because we’re going to tie it up in courts and demonstrations forever.” The Forest Service has so far received over 140,000 public comments on the proposed Tongass Roadless Rule with the majority being opposed to the change. Comments are being accepted through Dec. 17 or by email to [email protected]/ Comments also can be sent to USDA Forest Service, Attn: Alaska Roadless Rule, P.O. Box 21628, Juneau 99802. Halibut happenings In a few weeks, the researchers who oversee and set the catch limits for the Pacific halibut stock will reveal how the fishery could play out next year. The interim meeting of the International Pacific Halibut Commission will take place Nov. 25-26 in Seattle. Nearly all of the documents related to the fishery are now posted including updates on the summer survey, minus stock assessments. That information will be revealed by Nov. 22. The Pacific halibut resource is modeled as a single stock and each year’s survey is divided into 31 regions extending from Northern California to British Columbia and the far reaches of the Bering Sea. From June through August, 18 longliners this year participated in surveys of nearly 1,370 stations, including 89 added to the Central Gulf of Alaska. The survey boats used 407,000 pounds of chum salmon as bait and caught nearly 860,000 pounds of halibut during the summer survey. Most of the vessel contracts receive a lump sum payment plus a 10 percent share of the halibut proceeds. Data show how much the halibut fetched at all ports, ranging from $3.71 per pound at St. Paul to $7.76 at Cordova. The total coastwide catch of Pacific Halibut for 2019 was increased by 6 percent to nearly 25 million pounds. Alaska’s share was just less than 20 million pounds, a three million pound boost from 2018. The catch numbers for 2020 will be revealed at the IPHC’s annual meeting set for Feb. 3-7 at the Captain Cook Hotel Anchorage. The eight-month halibut fishery opens in March. Up next: Expo! The Pebble mine will be the keynote presentation at Pacific Marine Expo set for Nov. 21-23 in Seattle. “Pebble has gone from an Alaska issue to something that has really become important to everyone in the fishing and seafood communities. This is something that can impact a lot of people,” said Denielle Christensen, Expo director. “A panel will look at the environmental impact statement, the science behind it and what this might mean. We’ve even including a chef who feels quite passionate about understanding what to communicate to consumers about the Pebble Mine.” Fishing safety also will be showcased; the U.S Coast Guard will advise about changing fishing vessel safety requirements along with crossing hazardous bars. Historically, such crossings have been one of the biggest risks inherent with commercial fishing in the Pacific Northwest. “Responders are going to cover everything from understanding bar condition reporting, how and when to request a Coast Guard escort and what they can expect during an escort,” Christensen explained. Over 400 Expo exhibiters are expected at the CenturyLink Center in Seattle. Other events include a Fishermen of the Year contest, Highliner Awards, Fisher Poets, daily happy hours and the first leg of the Alaska Symphony of Seafood competition where the top winners will be announced. See the Expo line up at www.pacificmarineexpo.com Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Otter impacts still frustrating Southeast divers, crabbers

They are certainly cute but the voracious appetites of sea otters continue to cause horrendous damage to some of Southeast Alaska’s most lucrative fisheries. How best to curtail those impacts will be the focus of a day-long stakeholders meeting set for November 6 in Juneau. “All of the people who have anything to do with the otters hopefully will all be in the same room at the same time,” said Phil Doherty, co-director of the Southeast Alaska Regional Dive Fisheries Association based in Ketchikan. A 2011 report by the McDowell Group showed that otter predation on sea cucumbers, clams, urchins, crabs and other shellfish cost the Southeast economy nearly $30 million over 15 years. And their population has skyrocketed since then. Four hundred otters were reintroduced to Southeast by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game from Amchitka Island in the 1960s after nearly being wiped out by fur traders at the turn of that century. The otters, which rose to nearly 26,000 in the latest assessment updated in 2014, are under federal protection and managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The animals can grow up to 100 pounds and typically eat the equivalent of a quarter of their weight each day. Last year, at the urging of 20 Southeast towns, organizations and Native groups, the Alaska Senate passed a resolution asking for the state to take over otter management and to provide for more protections. “If the population continues to go unchecked, predation from sea otters inevitably threatens the future of dive and crab fisheries, jeopardizing hundreds of jobs and tens of millions of dollars in economic activity,” Sen. Bert Stedman, R-Sitka, wrote in a statement. One suggested solution has been to allow increased hunting by Native Alaskans, the only people allowed to do so, and lowering the Native blood “eligibility” to one-quarter of a percent. But Doherty said at a growth rate estimated at between 12 and 14 percent a year, hunting can’t keep up with the population. Another problem is restrictions on what Natives are allowed do with the otters they hunt. “The Marine Mammal Protection Act clearly states what Alaskan coastal Natives can do with sea otters,” Doherty explained. “They have to produce a finished product that is in the tradition of Native art and how they’ve used them over the years. They cannot harvest sea otters and sell just the pelt on the open market.” Patrick Lemons, Alaska chief of marine mammal management for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service said last year that the Marine Mammal Protection Act limits the agency’s response and they cannot intervene to protect commercial fisheries until a species is at “optimum sustainable population.” The agency recently put the Southeast region’s otter carrying capacity at 77,000, Doherty said. “Until we’re at that carrying capacity, they will manage the sea otters in a very conservative mode. And once we get to 77,000 otters, we can kiss some of these industries goodbye, and it is not just the dive fisheries. The Dungeness crab fishery here in Southeast is being severely impacted and otters eat king and Tanner crab, so there’s going to be impacts on all of the shellfish fisheries.” While the upcoming meeting will provide a valuable exchange, Doherty is not optimistic about the outcomes. “Because the otters are so protected within the Marine Mammal Protection Act, I don’t think anything is going to change the tide of the sea otter population here in Southeast Alaska,” he said. The day long Nov. 6 otter meeting will take place at the Andrew P. Kashevaroff Building in Juneau. It is free and open to the public. Pebble hearing in DC Threats posed to the Bristol Bay watershed by the proposed Pebble mine took center stage in Washington, D.C., at an Oct. 23 hearing of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. Opponents are hopeful the hearing might help put the brakes on the Pebble permitting process. “If Pebble is developed, there is no doubt it will forever change who I am, who my people are, where I come from. And it will rob our children’s children of their right to continue being Native people as we have for thousands of years in Bristol Bay,” said Alannah Hurley, executive director of United Tribes of Bristol Bay. Alaska Public Radio’s Liz Ruskin was at the hearing and reported that Pebble Partnership CEO Tom Collier, the only witness to support the mine, “tilted back in his chair and looked at the ceiling as Hurley spoke.” Alaska Congressman Don Young, who has not taken a position on the mine, criticized the witnesses for “not being scientists.” In a video of the hearing, Young said: “You’re not listening to the science. You are saying a lot of what ifs. Can and cannots. Should we or shouldn’t we. And this committee has a responsibility to review those that are directly involved. Not those that may be affected about it. It’s about science.” Committee Chairman Peter DeFazio, D-Ore., an outspoken Pebble critic, questioned the permitting process. He had especially harsh words about the way in which the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is assessing the project, which many have criticized as being rushed and sloppy. “What I first want is a proper review and a proper comment period, and I don’t believe the Corps is doing either of those things,” he said at the hearing. “And I’m going to push them very hard to push back, even if Donald Trump is pushing on the other side.” DeFazio was referring to a pull back of special protections the EPA had proposed on the Bristol Bay watershed in 2014. The proposed restrictions were abruptly withdrawn this year on July 30 after Trump had a brief meeting with Gov. Michael J. Dunleavy. That EPA pullback has prompted three lawsuits against the EPA by nearly 20 diverse groups. Last week’s hearing is “typically the first step before an investigation on the permitting process is launched,” said Molly Dischner, communications director for United Tribes of Bristol Bay. The Pebble Partnership has spent more than $2 million on federal lobbying so far this year according to public disclosure forms, Liz Ruskin reported. A final environmental impact statement on the project is expected in January. Fish game changer Just as farmed salmon grown in sea cages toppled markets for wild fish a few decades ago, land-based farming is set to change the game again over the next decade. It will come in the form of recirculating aquaculture systems, or RAS, and will cause even more disruption to world markets. That is the conclusion of Rabobank, a Netherlands-based leader in food and agriculture financing that is among the 30 largest groups in the world. A Rabobank report this month identified more than 50 RAS proposed projects around the world with an estimated output to equal 25 percent of current salmon production by the year 2030. That totals roughly 550 million pounds of fish; in comparison, Alaska’s 2018 salmon catch produced 605 million pounds of salmon. The report said most of the land-based farms are planned in Norway, but proposed production volumes are highest in the U.S. where six farms are planned. In the U.S. Maine is taking the lead where Portland-based company Whole Oceans has received two leases alongside and underneath the Penobscot River. It plans to break ground on a $180 million RAS facility next year and begin output of 11 million pounds of Atlantic salmon annually. The report said RAS could disrupt traditional ocean-based fish farming over the next 10 years adding “it’s not a question of if, but of how much.” Blue opportunity The Alaska Ocean Cluster, an arm of the Bering Sea Fishermen’s Association, is seeking a manager for its Blue Pipeline Incubator, or BPI, in Seward. “This is a blended position made possible through a partnership between the Ocean Cluster, the City of Seward, the Seward Chamber of Commerce and the Small Business Development Center,” said Casey Rangel, program manager. The BPI Manager will oversee all operations of the incubator and will act as the liaison to Seward’s ocean-based industries. Requirements include a bachelor’s degree in business administration or a related field. Salary is $65,000 to $75,000+ commensurate with experience. Applications will be accepted until the position is filled. Learn more at www.alaskaoceancluster.com/about/employment. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Kelp harvest rules under review; salmon summaries roll out

As more Alaskans eye the lucrative opportunities in growing kelp, many others are heading to beaches at Lower Cook Inlet to commercially harvest the detached bunches that wash ashore. That practice is now getting a closer look by state managers and scientists and could result in new regulations by year’s end. Detached kelp harvests have occurred at Lower Cook Inlet under special permits since the 1970s but matters of who needs permits, for how much and for what purposes are not clearly defined. Currently, a special permit is needed for commercial takes. “A commissioner’s permit is needed that describes where and when harvests will occur and how much will be taken. It needs to be documented thoroughly to make sure they are not taking the wrong species, or not taking from below the high tide line,” said Glenn Hollowell, area manager for finfish at the Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game office in Homer. Owners of the Anchor Point Greenhouse, for example, take 6,000 to 7,000 pounds from local beaches each September and over four decades they’ve created a booming business for a potting soil blend that is sold statewide. In the past, the detached seaweed has been considered dead. More recently, it’s been discovered that many clumps continue to release live spores. Hollowell said that may mean it’s important to sustaining those kelp populations, and all that beached seaweed might also serve other purposes. “Whether this is for reproductive reasons, or to provide shelter and food for a variety of wild animals, as well as a carbon source. It does feed a lot of other ecological needs. And we’re just not certain that the wholesale removal of this stuff in large quantities might not have a negative impact on the ecosystem in general. So, we’re approaching this very cautiously,” he explained. The state Board of Fisheries will take up two detached and live kelp proposals at its Dec. 10-13 meeting in Seward. One (No. 21) submitted by Al Poindexter of the Anchor Point Greenhouse, aims to better identify the commercial harvest of detached kelp off of beaches. “First, Fish and Game does not know production rates of seaweed and what keeps it sustainable…Another issue is what is commercial or home use and what amounts are those?” Poindexter wrote. “For instance, I will collect 6 small pickups and it is called commercial, but my neighbor will collect 10 pickups for his berry patch and that is called home use. Another may just collect a bucket full for his flower patch. Who needs a permit and who doesn’t? And for what purpose? Does anyone get grandfathered in or who decides by what criteria, amounts, geographic area or timing? Parameters would be based on what data?” “At this time, I believe that out of all the folks who collect seaweed from the beach, I have been the only one who has been required to get a permit for this activity,” he concluded. Another proposal (No. 241) would allow for the personal use harvest of aquatic plants in the Cook Inlet area outside of subsistence areas, similar to rules the Fish Board created in Southeast Alaska last year. Researchers at the University of Alaska Fairbanks are working with ADFG to learn what happens when kelp is removed from areas and how such harvests affect rejuvenation. “The department wants to be very cautious as we start doing new things with it, to make sure that we don’t allow something we will later regret. It might cause damage to that kelp population, or to other species of invertebrates or vertebrates that utilize it such as birds and fish,” Hollowell said. The outcome of those projects, he added, will likely shape future regulations. Comments can be made to the Board of Fisheries through Nov. 25. Eating fish boosts IQ For centuries what’s been regarded as an old wives’ tale has claimed that fish is brain food. Now there’s more proof that eating seafood does indeed make you smarter. A report out last week by 13 leading dietary scientists declared that children whose mothers ate seafood during pregnancy gained an average 7.7 IQ points compared to children of moms who did not. The findings came after a review of 44 different studies since 2000 that included nearly 103,000 mother-offspring pairs and more than 25,000 children. The brain benefits began with just one serving of seafood per week during pregnancy, and the beneficial outcomes appeared on tests given as early as three days of age and as late as 17 years. Along with IQ, measures included verbal, visual and motor skill development. Four studies looked at hyperactivity and ADHD diagnoses and showed that kids of moms not eating seafood had nearly three times greater risk of hyperactivity. The findings follow a report this year from the American Academy of Pediatrics that said U.S. children are not eating enough seafood. Dr. Tom Brenna, a professor of pediatrics and nutrition at Dell Medical School at the University of Texas, said it’s the omega-3s in seafood that boost brain growth. “The brain and the retina in the eye are omega-3 organs,” he said. “You can say that as calcium is to the bones, omega 3 is to the brain.” Brenna agreed it’s been tough to get the message to a wider audience. “We don’t have a good a way of getting the word out. Maybe we should have a contest to find a nice tag line that would identify seafood in the same way as ‘Got Milk’ or ‘Beef, it’s what’s for dinner,’” he added in a phone conversation. The IQ boost from eating fish report comes as the U.S. is updating its dietary guidelines through 2025. The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee will meet five times through March 2020 and written comments are being accepted until the committee completes its work. Salmon summaries Prince William Sound’s salmon harvest this summer came in at nearly 58 million fish, of which almost 50 million were pinks. The estimated fishery value was $114 million, including hatchery sales, and paid out at $81,600 per permit on average for the fleet of 504 drift gillnetters; 238 seiners averaged $218,000 per permit. Revenue generated for hatchery operations was approximately $18.6 million. At Copper River, a catch of nearly 1.3 million sockeye salmon was 28 percent more than the previous 10-year average, and the average sockeye weight of 5.5 pounds was the largest in the last five years. Those are just a few of the details in season summaries that will continue to trickle in by region to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. At Lower Cook Inlet the 2019 salmon catch totaled 2.4 million fish, of which nearly 2 million were pinks. The commercial harvest value of nearly $3.6 million was above the 10-year average of $2.4 million. At Norton Sound, 145 permits were fished this summer, the second highest since 1993, and the fishery value topped $2 million for the third year in a row. The region saw well above average runs of chums, pinks, sockeyes and coho salmon. The chum salmon harvest of 157,035 was the third highest in the last 35 years. At Alaska’s farthest north salmon fishery at Kotzebue the chum harvest topped 400,000 fish for only the tenth time ever for 93 participants. The value of more than $1.5 million was down a third from last year due to lower prices, but it was the fifth time since 1988 that it exceeded $1 million. Fishery managers at Bristol Bay were the first to come out with a season summary showing a preliminary fishery value at $306.5 million, an all-time record. A total take of 44.5 million salmon, of which 43 million were sockeyes, was the second largest in history since the 45.4 million fish taken in 1995. Salmon summaries from other regions will soon follow and yield the preliminary dockside value for the entire 2019 fishery. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Board of Fisheries work session kicks off annual meeting cycle

Hundreds of fishery stakeholders and scientists will gather in Anchorage next week as the state Board of Fisheries begins its annual meeting cycle with a two-day work session. The seven-member board sets the rules for the state’s subsistence, commercial, sport and personal use fisheries. It meets four to six times each year in various communities on a three-year rotation; this year the focus is on Kodiak and Cook Inlet. The board and the public also will learn the latest on how a changing climate and off-kilter ocean chemistry are affecting some of Alaska’s most popular seafood items at an Oct. 23 “talk and Q&A” on ocean acidification, or OA, in Alaska. And they undoubtedly will be astounded to learn that despite salmon being Alaska’s most iconic fish, only two studies have looked at salmon response to OA, and both were conducted outside of Alaska. Most of the research to date has focused specifically on crab and fish stocks, said Bob Foy, director of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Auke Bay lab in Juneau who will lead the Anchorage presentation. Ocean acidification is caused when carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere dissolves in the ocean, lowering the water’s pH level and making it more acidic. The imbalance prevents marine creatures from forming shells and skeletons, among other things. “We’ve found effects on Tanner crab and red king crab in the laboratory. Interestingly, on a positive note, we have found very little effect, if any, in the early life stages of juvenile snow crab. So, there’s some hope for that species,” Foy said. “For fish, we’ve found limited if any effects on pollock, but we have found effects on cod and some flatfish species.” Most studies to date have focused on direct effects to an animal, Foy said, but future work will take a “bottoms up” approach to learn how ecosystem changes affect their metabolism and body functions. “We know more recently from the large changes we’ve seen in the climate and the increased warming, the heat waves we’ve seen in Alaska, that the lower trophic levels are dramatically affected by that heat. And those effects have been observed in the larger commercial fish species such as cod,” Foy said, referring to the 80 percent cod crash last year in the Gulf of Alaska that is blamed on imbalances caused by warmer water. The real concern, Foy said, is the speed at which changes are occurring. “It’s difficult to assess, difficult to manage,” he said. “Now we’ve got important commercial species moving thousands of kilometers over a couple of years in the Bering Sea, Northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea. That shows us that these populations will try to adapt, they will move and push the ranges of their physiology and their tolerance. The unknown is whether or not they can adapt at the speed at which everything is changing.” Early victims of OA already are known to be pteropods, microscopic floating snails that make up a huge portion of the diets of juvenile pink salmon. Research elsewhere also has shown that acidity affects growth rates of pink salmon and impairs the sense of smell in cohos. Evaluating the risks to Alaska salmon will be part of the discussion by Toby Schwoerer, a research associate at the University of Alaska Institute for Social and Economic Research Associate. Being forewarned is being forearmed, said Bob Foy. “The importance of providing information and educating ourselves is critical,” he stressed. “Our goal is to get the word out to the commercial industry, coastal communities, to managers and policymakers so we can better understand how these changes in the environment may lead to changes in our economies, in our livelihoods and our ways of life in Alaska.” The OA talk will take place on Wednesday, Oct. 23 at the Egan Center starting at 5:30 p.m. Contact Darcy Dugan at the Alaska Ocean Acidification Network for more information at [email protected] Crab numbers As Bering Sea crab fisheries got underway on Oct. 15 the fleet has less crab to haul up overall. Crabbers were relieved to get an opener for Bristol Bay red king crab with a catch reduced to just less than 3.8 million pounds of mature male crabs, the only ones that can be retained for sale. As expected, the snow crab total catch was increased by 24 percent to 34 million pounds. There will be no fishery for bairdi Tanners, snow crab’s larger cousin. A catch of 2.4 million pounds was allowed last year but surveys showed there were not enough crab to meet a threshold for an opener. Likewise, closures will remain for blue king crab at St. Matthew Island, and for blue and red king crab at the Pribilof Islands where the stocks remain depleted. That’s not the case for Dungeness crab in the Gulf of Alaska and all along the Pacific coast where fisheries are booming. Southeast Alaska’s summer fishery produced over four million pounds for more than 185 crabbers and strong catches have continued in the fall opener that runs through November. At the westward region, which includes Kodiak, Chignik and the South Peninsula, Dungeness crab fisheries are booming and Kodiak is no exception. Since May, a fleet of 13 boats has hauled up 1.2 million pounds, double last year’s catch. “We’re certainly on track to break 1.3 million pounds if not more. We’ve got another few weeks left in the season that closes October 31,” said Nat Nichols, area manager at the Alaska Department of Fish and Game office in Kodiak. “We knew that this year was going to be good based on reports from the fishery last year, Nichols added. “We knew that there was a big year class of small crab that were going to recruit into the fishery and we’re seeing the results of that now.” Crab abundance is quite cyclical, Nichols said, and at least for the short term, the outlook for Dungies is good. “It seems like when we get these pulses of crab coming through, they last for a season or three,” he explained. “I have hopes that the fishing we’re experiencing this year may carry into next year. What I’ve heard from some of the fleet is that they’re still seeing small crab and we may have a few more good seasons in front of us. So that’s something to look forward to.” Westward crabbers are reportedly getting $2.60 to $2.75 a pound for their Dungeness catches. Industry updates Alaska’s seafood industry includes more than 9,000 fishing vessels, 87 large shoreside processing plants and generates 60,000 jobs annually. Those are just a few of the fishing industry updates unveiled at the recent Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute’s All Hands meeting in Anchorage. Here’s a sampler compiled by the McDowell Group: Alaska’s catches in 2018 reached 5.8 billion pounds with Alaska pollock comprising 59 percent of the volume. The $2 billion value of the harvest was led by salmon at 36 percent. Nearly 80 percent of Alaska’s seafood is exported; through the first half of 2019 the value of exports to China declined 15 percent. The 2019 salmon catch ranks eighth for all-time harvests. Just 14 percent of the salmon was canned compared to 40 percent in the early 2000s. Alaska is the world’s largest producer of Pacific cod, which is at a 20-year low. Current halibut harvest levels are just 20 percent of what they were 20 years ago. The export value of sablefish is down 30 percent due mostly to small fish and losses from whale predation. Strong demand for crab is pushing prices higher. Alaska accounts for 10 percent to 15 percent of global red king crab supply with 70 percent coming from Russia; for snow crab, Alaska produces less than 10 percent of the supply with 45 percent coming from eastern Canada. About 500 million pounds of more than 10 different kinds of flatfish are caught each year in Alaska valued at $100 million. Pacific Ocean perch is the main rockfish taken at 100 million pounds valued at $25 million. Looking ahead, strong or stable pollock prices are a bright spot and the 2019 salmon catch will be one of the most valuable ever. One caution: trade disputes remain a threat and more tariffs could be coming this month or in mid-December. ^ Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Halibut, sablefish bycatch levels front and center again for council

Halibut catches fluctuate based on the ups and downs of the stock from California to the farthest reaches of the Bering Sea. If the numbers decline, so do the catches of commercial and sport fishermen. But similar reductions don’t apply to the boats taking millions of pounds of halibut as bycatch in other fisheries. In the Bering Sea, for example, there is a fixed cap totaling 7.73 million pounds of halibut allowed to be taken as bycatch for trawlers, longliners and pot boats targeting groundfish, with most going to trawlers. The cap stays the same, regardless of changes in the halibut stock. Nearly all of the bycatch gets tossed over the side, dead or alive, as required by federal law. Stakeholders are saying it is time for that to change. This month, after four years of analyses and deliberation, managers are moving towards a new “abundance based” management plan that would tie bycatch levels to the health of the halibut stock as determined by annual surveys. Levels of bycatch (also called prohibited species catch, or PSC) are set by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council in waters from three to 200 miles offshore, where the bulk of Alaska’s harvests come from. In several regions, the bycatch allowed each year exceeds the catches that can be taken by fishermen who count on halibut to keep their small, seagoing businesses afloat. In a letter to the council, fisherman Josh Wisniewski of Homer cited a 2013 scenario. “The total amount of halibut that could be removed…was less than the prospective amount of halibut bycatch allowed. In other words, we didn’t have enough fish in the water to cover allowable bycatch and there would have been no directed fishery. Only emergency negotiations preserved opportunity for directed fishermen,” he wrote, adding “when halibut abundance declines, the proportion to the bycatch users increases and the amount to the directed halibut users decreases.” “I believe it is imperative, as a matter of conservation and equity, that the Council continue to move forward and develop an abundance-based management approach that provides the ability for the bycatch cap to go up and down based on stock abundance. The fixed cap, under today’s halibut stock status, is both outdated and inequitable,” Wisniewski added. Along with halibut, the council is getting an angry earful for the amount of sablefish, or black cod, that’s also going over the side by the big, mostly Seattle-based boats fishing for deep water flatfish in the Bering Sea. Scientists with the council revealed last week that sablefish bycatch of nearly 5 million pounds has been taken by Bering Sea trawlers this year, more than triple their allowance of 1.4 million pounds. They said that “given current information, there is a good chance that the Bering Sea overfishing limit for sablefish in 2019 will be exceeded.” That would close all directed sablefish fisheries in federal waters for the rest of the year. In a letter to the council, Linda Behnken of the Alaska Longline Fishermen’s Association, called “the amount of trawl inflicted mortality unacceptable.” The Seattle-based Fishing Vessel Owner’s Association and Deep Sea Fishermen’s Union agreed. “Our first concern is that, by allowing the bycatch to reach these levels, any assumption that we were saving fish to help rebuild this resource cannot be sustained,” both wrote in a letter to the NPFMC, adding, “Having nearly 5 million pounds of bycatch of juvenile sablefish is not acceptable, ever, and particularly if this is becoming an annual event.” The numbers of fish coming and going over the side as bycatch in the Bering Sea are straightforward because nearly all of the boats are required to have 100 percent observer coverage. That’s not the case in the Gulf of Alaska where in 2018 observer coverage included just one out of every six fishing trips. Based on those observations, groundfish trawlers in the Central Gulf caught nearly 4.7 million pounds of sablefish as bycatch, more than double their 2.3 million-pound allotment. Halibut bycatch in the Central and Western Gulf in 2018 totaled 2.1 million pounds, nearly all by trawlers with longliners a distant second. They also took 16,802 chinook salmon, according to state and federal data compiled by Oceana. “For comparison, the total chinook allocation for all sport fishing in all of Southeast Alaska is only 23,900 fish,” Jamie Karnik, Oceana’s Juneau-based Pacific Communications Manager said in a statement. IPHC researchers have cautioned that Gulf bycatch numbers could be much higher due to the data gaps. “This is important not only for overall observer coverage, but for the ‘observer effect,’ where it has been shown that on average over the last three years bottom trawl vessels caught 30 percent less fish overall when they had an observer on board, yet those trips are used as the baseline for data on unobserved trips,” Karvik said. There’s not a fisherman alive who likes throwing fish over the side. Many Gulf trawl fishermen and trade groups for years have urged the council to craft a new management plan to “slow the race for fish” and allow them to fish cooperatively or under a catch share program. In June 2012, the Council initiated the process but in 2016, citing too much division among stakeholders, all work on a Gulf trawl bycatch management plan was postponed “indefinitely.” Cod in the USA Many Americans are skeptical about buying fish and the mislabeling of seafood is rampant. One fishing company is removing all the guesswork from consumers. “America’s Cod Company” is the new red, white and blue brand that Alaskan Leader Seafoods is splashing all over its packaging. The company’s four longliners fish for cod in the Bering Sea. “We’re sitting here with this amazing Alaska fishery, which we’ve all been born into, and we just want to represent it. Across America there’s so many foreign products that I think the domestic consumer is interested in something that’s Made in the USA,” said Keith Singleton, head of Alaskan Leader’s value added division. The company was selected last week as a leading innovator by Seafood Source in its 20th annual list of the top 25 U.S. seafood suppliers, citing its consumer friendly, pop in the oven cod with flavored sauces and the latest, a Fish and Chips kit which will debut at next month’s Alaska Symphony of Seafood. Big wins at the Symphony’s new products competition two years ago has led to shelf space at Costco and a pet food deal with Purina. The pet food market, Singleton said, fits the company’s goal to use every part of the fish. “The cod liver oil is spoken for and we have a great stomach program and we’ve got a roe program,” he said. “On the pet food side, we have the head program. It’s a growing portion of our business and we’re all about one hundred percent utilization. We’re not there yet, but we’re darn close. And we’re very proud of that.” October is National Seafood Month Be sure to celebrate Alaska seafood, fishermen, processors and all the related industries that keep fishing communities afloat! ^ Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: North Pacific council set to convene in Homer

Federal stewards of Alaska’s fisheries will meet in Homer for the first time since 1983 as they continue their pursuit of involving more people in policy maki From Sept. 30 to Oct. 10, the Spit will be aswarm with entourages of the 15 member North Pacific Fishery Management Council which oversees more than 25 stocks in waters from three to 200 miles offshore, the source of most of Alaska’s fish volumes. The NPFMC is one of eight regional councils established by the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act in 1976 that booted foreign fleets to waters beyond 200 miles and “Americanized” the Bering Sea fisheries. “The council certainly is interested in engaging more stakeholders, particularly from rural and Alaska Native communities, and by going to more coastal communities, it allows them more opportunity for input into the process,” said Dave Witherell, council executive director, adding that in recent years the council has expanded beyond Kodiak, Juneau and Sitka to convene in Nome and Dutch Harbor. At Homer, following the lead of the state Board of Fisheries, a first ever “Intro to the Council Process” workshop will be held to make the policy process less daunting. Witherell said that came at the suggestion of the council’s local engagement committee created in 2018. “It’s quite a steep learning curve to understand all the ins and outs and goings on at a council meeting and what’s written in our analyses,” Witherell said. “We’re trying to open it up so that someone who may not follow or live and breathe the council process can still participate. We’re trying to put it out there in plain language.” Plain language is also what you’ll find on the revamped council website. All postings of meeting agendas, document overviews, etc. are in a “conversational style” and have been consolidated in one place, said Maria Davis, council IT specialist. “Some of the topics are very complex so distilling them down into two or three sentences may not be exactly what is happening, but it gives them a large overview. Then you can read the analysis if you’re really interested in a lot of the detail,” she said adding that searchable digital content is included back to 2014. “It’s so easy to find documents and it’s so easy for the staff to upload their documents,” Davis said. “There’s also a public comment portal where you can read comments and you can upload your comments for committee and council meetings under each agenda item. “It’s very user friendly and you get a return email that says thank you, your comment has been received and council members and the general public can see it immediately. It’s really been a game changer as far as accessibility for the public.” The council members know that the topics they discuss and the decisions they make affect many who are not directly involved in fishing, Davis added. “It’s also all the businesses where you live year round and the communities,” she said. “We want to hear from them and we want to make it easy and not intimidating.” The industry will get a first glimpse at potential 2021 catches of Alaska pollock, cod, sablefish, rockfish, flounders and other whitefish at the Homer meeting. www.npfmc.org More women in fish Dave Witherell stepped up to the NPFMC executive director role when after 16 years Chris Oliver moved to Washington, D.C., to take the helm at NOAA Fisheries two years ago. Witherell chose Diana Evans to be deputy director, the first woman to hold that position. Evans has worked as a fishery analyst for the council since 2002. At the Homer meeting, two women also will be newly seated to replace Theresa Peterson of Kodiak and Buck Laukitis of Homer, whose terms have expired. Cora Campbell and Nicole Kimball both have previously represented the State of Alaska on the NPFMC but they now will be industry representatives. Campbell, a former commissioner of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, is now CEO of Silver Bay Seafoods. Kimball served for many years as federal fisheries coordinator for ADFG and now is vice president of Pacific Seafood Processors Association. Carina Nichols of Sitka was hired by Alaska Sen. Dan Sullivan as a new legislative assistant focusing on fisheries. Nichols has fished for sablefish and halibut in Southeast and salmon at Bristol Bay. She also has been a member of the council Advisory Panel. “I am glad to welcome Carina to my team in Washington, D.C. Her many years of experience both working on the water and in fisheries policy brings a depth and breadth of knowledge about the issues facing Alaska’s fisheries and coastal communities that will be invaluable in guiding my work serving Alaskans,” Sullivan wrote in an emailed message. Big Bay payday! Bristol Bay salmon fishermen are set to take home their biggest paychecks ever. The 2019 preliminary ex-vessel (dockside) value of $306.5 million for all salmon species ranks first in the history of the fishery and was 248 percent of the 20-year average of $124 million, according to an ADFG release. The 2019 sockeye salmon run of 56.5 million fish was the fourth-largest and it was the fifth consecutive year that inshore runs topped 50 million fish. The all-species harvest of 44.5 million is the second largest on record, after the 45.4 million taken in 1995. This year over 43 million of the Bristol Bay salmon harvest was sockeyes. Here are the 2019 salmon base prices at Bristol Bay with comparisons to 2018 in parentheses: sockeyes, $1.35 per pound ($1.26); chinook, $0.50 ($0.80); chums, $0.25 ($0.43); pinks, $0.05 ($0.20); and cohos, $0.55 ($0.80). The weight, harvest, and price of each species were used to estimate values and do not include future price adjustment for icing, bleeding, or production bonuses. Fish guts go plastic A 23-year-old student at the University of Sussex in England has invented a biodegradable plastic bag made from fish guts. Lucy Hughes was bothered by the “unwanted offcuts” from seafood processing that are dumped each year and discovered that red algae along the local coastline worked as a binding agent. SeafoodNews reports that Hughes used the algae to bind together the fish waste proteins into a translucent, plastic-like material that biodegrades in four to six weeks. Initial testing suggests that it is stronger, safer and much more sustainable than its oil-based plastic counterpart. Hughes plans to commercialize her product called MarinaTex. “For me, MarinaTex represents a commitment to material innovation and selection by incorporating sustainable, local and circular values into design,” she said. “As creators, we should not limit ourselves in designing to just form and function, but rather form, function and footprint.” Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Second-best sockeye season highlights salmon harvest

“Unpredictable” is the way salmon managers describe Alaska’s 2019 salmon season, with “very, very interesting” as an aside. The salmon fishery is near its end, and a statewide catch of nearly 200 million salmon is only 6 percent off what the Alaska Department of Fish and Game number crunchers predicted, and it is on track to be the eighth-largest since 1975. The brightest spot of the season was the strong returns of sockeye salmon that produced a catch of more than 55 million fish, the largest since 1995 and the fifth consecutive year of harvests topping 50 million reds. The bulk of the sockeye catch – 43.2 million – came from Bristol Bay, the second-largest on record. It was a rollercoaster ride in many regions where unprecedented warm temperatures threw salmon runs off kilter and also killed large numbers of fish that were unable to swim upstream to their spawning grounds. Many salmon that made it to water faced temperatures of 75 degrees or more in some regions. “The hot dry weather for most of the summer resulted in low and warm water conditions in many of the important spawning systems around the state. The salmon had to spend more time in saltwater than they normally would, in the terminal areas near the stream mouths,” said Forrest Bowers, deputy director of the ADFG Commercial Fisheries Division. Despite the heat stress, escapement goals were met in most Alaska regions. “The runs returned in large enough numbers to make that happen. So that’s a bright spot,” said Bowers, a nearly 30-year salmon management veteran. It’s been difficult to get a good census on how many salmon might have perished in the heat wave, Bowers said, but managers are assessing potential impacts on future fish. “We’ve been taking reports from the public and we’ve had staff out in the field trying to collect information on the extent of those die-offs,” Bowers said. “We’re looking at all the data, but from what we’ve seen, the magnitude is relatively small and we don’t believe it has been significant enough to impact escapement.” “Now, whether the warm water and low water conditions will result in reduced viability of offspring from the fish spawning this year or increase overwintering mortality, that remains to be seen. But those are possibilities,” he added. The same environmental conditions are playing out favorably for salmon in westward regions, which adds to the unpredictability. “Particularly north of the Alaska Peninsula and the Bering Sea have been really favorable for salmon production at Bristol Bay, the Yukon, Norton Sound and Kotzebue,” Bowers said. “And we’re starting to see salmon move even further into the Arctic. On the North Slope, we’re seeing sockeye and pink salmon up there.” It’s a sign of the times, Bowers added, and the unpredictability brings new challenges to salmon managers. “It’s difficult to count on traditional run timings,” he explained. “We have so much run timing data for Pacific salmon and Alaska that go back over 100 years for some of the stocks that we rely on for in season management decisions. With a very compressed run such as at Bristol Bay, even a deviation of a few days creates a lot of uncertainty. Does that mean the run is late or not as large as forecast? “So that’s what we’re seeing in the last couple of years, this increased uncertainty in terms of run time and size.” Fish watch As salmon fishing winds down, hundreds of boats of all gear types and sizes are going after cod, rockfish, perch, flounders, Alaska pollock and many other species. Alaska halibut longliners have taken 73 percent of their nearly 18 million-pound catch limit with less than 5 million pounds remaining. Homer leads all ports for halibut landings followed by Seward and Kodiak. So far 58 percent of the nearly 26 million-pound sablefish quota has been caught. Sitka has topped Seward as the usual leading port for sablefish landings, with Kodiak third. Both the Pacific halibut and sablefish fisheries end on Nov. 14. Fall means the start of dive fisheries for pricey sea cucumbers. On Oct. 7 divers will head down for nearly 2 million pounds of cukes in Southeast Alaska. A much smaller sea cucumber fishery of 165,000 pounds opens on Oct. 1 at Kodiak, Chignik and the South Peninsula. Red sea cucumbers last year paid out at more than $4 per pound to fishermen. The Panhandle’s popular spot shrimp fishery also opens Oct. 1. Fishermen using pots can haul up just more than a half-million pounds. Also in Southeast Alaska, the Dungeness crab fishery will reopen Oct. 1 in a year that could be the best in a decade. The catch for the summer fishery that wrapped up last month topped 4 million pounds and managers expect a good catch this fall. Dungies averaged $3.06 per pound making the summer fishery worth nearly $13 million at the docks. Here’s a new one: The Alaska Department of Fish and Game has established a season for the commercial harvest of detached kelp that has washed up on beaches in Lower Cook Inlet. Almanac call Share personal glimpses of your fishing life in photos, songs, stories, art, poems, musings and mischief in the second Alaska Young Fishermen’s Almanac. The call for submissions is going on now. “It’s a window into the lifestyle that so many of us live here in Alaska,” said Jamie O’Connor, a fisherman and head of the Alaska Young Fishermen’s Network, an arm of the Alaska Marine Conservation Council. The almanac is modeled after a publication for farmers that dates back to 1792. Last year’s 141-page inaugural edition featured nearly 60 items from almost every Alaska region. It serves as a “cultural touchstone” for fishermen that reinforces their sense of community, O’Connor said, adding that she’s been pleasantly surprised at how popular the book has been with non-fishing people. Ultimately, the almanac celebrates the culture and builds understanding of the fishing life. The Alaska Young Fishermen’s Almanac will be available in mid-November, just in time for holiday gift giving. The deadline for submissions is Oct. 1. Fish bucks give back American Seafoods Co. is again offering grants for community programs at Kodiak, the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands, Alaska Peninsula, Bristol Bay, Lower Kuskokwim, Lower Yukon, Norton Sound and regions north. The majority of grant awards will range from $1,000 to $7,500 and be based on the need in the community, the number of people who will benefit from the program and the ability to garner matching funding. The deadline to submit applications is Oct. 14 and recipients will be announced by the Western Alaska Community Grant Board on Oct. 30. Apply at www.americanseafoods.com or contact Kim Lynch ([email protected] Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Dietary guidelines zero in on seafood

Federal agencies are meeting now through next March to define U.S. dietary guidelines for 2020-25, and a high-powered group of doctors and nutritionists are making sure the health benefits of seafood are front and center. For the first time in the 40-year history of the program, the dietary guidelines committee has posted the questions they are going to consider. They include the role of seafood in the neurocognitive development in pregnant moms for their babies, and in the diet of kids from birth to 24 months directly, said Dr. Tom Brenna, professor of pediatrics and nutrition at Dell Medical School at the University of Texas. “We really got jazzed when we saw that because we wanted to figure out what the committee would find when it does its literature search on what medical evidence is out there and boy, did we find a lot,” Brenna said. Brenna also chairs the advisory council of the Seafood Nutrition Partnership, which on Sept. 17 is holding its 3rd annual in Washington, DC. The non-profit hosts the event as part of a public health campaign started in 2015 aimed at getting Americans to eat more seafood. More than 40 studies address the two committee questions, Brenna said, and provide evidence of how nutrients in seafood, such as omega-3 fatty acids, are so especially important to brain and eye development. “The brain and the retina in the eye are omega-3 organs. As calcium is to the bones, omega-3 is to the brain,” he said. “These kinds of data are exactly the kind of human study the dietary guidelines focus on. They are not cell studies, not rat studies, they are based on real studies on humans. It’s direct evidence. That’s why we are so excited.” For centuries, fish has been regarded as “brain food” and a plethora of studies has shown that seafood can prevent or relieve dementia and Alzheimer’s disease and reduce depression, among other things. “I don’t understand why anyone wouldn’t be thinking of seafood if they wanted to keep their brain in good working order,” Brenna said, adding that he is baffled why such positive health messages have not “stuck” in the U.S. Answers could be forthcoming in a discussion of Building Lifelong Seafood Consumers at the D.C. symposium. Unlike the meat or dairy industries who use sustained, national campaigns such as “Where’s the Beef?” or “Got Milk?”, the seafood industry has never banded together on its own behalf. “Getting the seafood industry together to promote one message has been difficult,” Brenna said, adding that the industry appears fragmented instead of coming together as a national “whole.” He is hopeful that putting the spotlight on seafood’s health advantages will help move the message and that national media will show more interest. “We’re generating the ammunition for the policy guys,” Brenna said. “There’s only so much that the science guys can do and boy, we’ve spent a lot of time doing it. We can lay the evidence in front of the policy makers. They have to implement it.” The 2015-20 dietary guidelines recommended at least two servings of seafood per week, but only one in 10 follow the recommendation. Consumption of seafood by Americans reached 16 pounds per person in 2017, in increase of 1.1 pounds versus 2016, according to federal data. The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee will meet five times with the last meeting tentatively scheduled for March 12-13, 2020. All meetings will be open to the public and two will include opportunity for public comment. Written comments are being accepted until the committee completes its work. A final report will be submitted to the Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. Crab’s coming Bering Sea crabbers got some good news in advance of the season opener in mid-October. “We’ve been told that we will have a Bering Sea red king crab season. We don’t know what the catch will be yet but we understand that it will be reduced from last year. We really appreciate the Alaska Department of Fish and Game for giving us a heads up on that,” said Jake Jacobsen, director of the Inter-cooperative Exchange, or ICE, which represents more than 75 percent of the crab fleet of about 85 boats. The 2018 catch limit for Bristol Bay red king crab was just 4.3 million pounds. Jacobsen said the catch will go into an eager market and make for a good pay day. “Our average price for king crab last year was $10.53 (per pound),” he said. “We’re expecting higher prices this year based on what we’re seeing in world markets.” The record price for Alaska red king crab was $10.84 per pound paid in 2011. No word yet on the catch quota for snow crab, or opilio, although it should increase from this year’s take of 27.5 million pounds. Surveys in 2018 showed a 60 percent boost in market sized male crabs and nearly the same for females. Bob Foy, director of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council’s crab plan team, said it “documented one of the largest snow crab recruitment events biologists have ever seen.” Snow crab prices for the 2019 winter fishery are still being finalized, Jacobsen said, adding “it should be somewhere around $3.95 to $4 (per pound) average price.” A shortage of snow crab could prompt earlier fishing than the traditional mid-January start, he added. Crabbers also are keeping their fingers crossed for an opener for bairdi Tanners, snow crab’s bigger cousin. Jacobsen said the 2019 Tanner price “should average around $4.50 a pound.” Just 2.4 million pounds were allowed for harvest in the 2018-19 Tanner fishery, although crabbers say they see a lot more crab than what’s been showing up in annual trawl surveys. “It’s really hard to guess from one year to the next on the surveys. It might show something one year and you can’t find them the next,” he said. Jacobsen added that buyers like Red Lobster are featuring the larger bairdi Tanners on their menus and a closure would crimp those markets. “We’re really hopeful we can get a bairdi season this year so we can maintain that differentiation in the marketplace. It seems like we have to rebuild it every time we miss a year or two,” he said. Managers will reveal findings of the summer survey during the week of Sept. 16 in Seattle and finalize the catch quotas in early October. The Bering Sea crab fisheries open Oct. 15. Five species, five pieces Snack sized stories can teach a lot about Alaska salmon and connect people across the state. “I don’t think it’s an overstatement to say that here is no other species that is as important to Alaska as salmon,” said Peter Westley, an assistant professor at the College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. His students compile a Five Bites of Salmon newsletter that showcases stories and research about Alaska salmon as a way to “help increase salmon literacy and build a network of salmon connected people,” he said. A recent Five Bites highlighted lethal impacts of Alaska’s heat wave on salmon, what raging wildfires might mean for salmon habitat and interactive dives into 13 salmon regions that show, for example, that the Yukon is home to a larger watershed than Texas. The newsletter is a small offshoot of the college’s Salmonid Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation lab, or SEEC, which focuses on projects that help inform policy makers and sustain connections between salmon, people and place, Westley said. “Sustainability is not just about having a high abundance of salmon in some river,” he said. “It’s really about sustaining the connections to that resource on the landscape.” Research by SEEC lab students has revealed, for example, that larger numbers of adult coho salmon at Kodiak have a much higher dependence on Buskin Lake before they head downstream to spawn. Another showed for the first time that the demise of most Yukon River chinook seems to occur in the ocean and not in fresh water habitats. Research also is ongoing on hatchery strays and invasive Northern pike. The SEEC Lab also is a part of the Alaska Salmon and People project, a statewide initiative to quantify the varied states of salmon through histories, case studies and in depth data. Sign on to the Five Bites newsletter and learn how to make Blueberry Cured Salmon Gravlax. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Commercial Fisheries Division sorts out budget cuts

Now the shuffling begins at Alaska fisheries offices around the state as the impacts from back and forth veto volleys become clearer. For the commercial fisheries division of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, an $85 million budget, about half of which is from state general funds, reflects a $997,000 dollar cut for fiscal year 2020. Where and how the cuts will play out across Alaska’s far-flung coastal regions is now being decided by fishery managers. “Now that the salmon season is about over we’re taking a good close look at this and what we’re going to put in the water next season. We’ve been assured we can look at our (commercial fisheries) budget in total and reduce the lowest priority projects,” said ADFG Commissioner Doug Vincent-Lang. Some layoffs are likely and vacancies and retiree positions may not be filled to save money, he added. “We’ll be consolidating different groups across the state in an effort to keep as much as we can going that is mission critical in terms of work out in the field. Because the less information we have the more precautionary we’ll become in our management,” he said. Gov. Michael J. Dunleavy’s vetoes for commercial fisheries included $258,000 for surveys and stock assessment in Southeast, $240,000 in Southcentral, $300,000 from the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim Region, and $200,000 from the Westward Region. A possible list includes doing fewer or shorter surveys on Bering Sea juvenile chinook salmon, and relying on fewer weir or sonar tracking for sockeyes at the Susitna River drainage. Test line fisheries at Cook Inlet might be shortened and Tanner crab surveys at Prince William Sound could get the axe. Salmon weirs at Kodiak and Chignik may be reduced along with various groundfish stock assessment projects. Also cut by 50 percent were state travel funds for the Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute and all ADFG divisions, except for members of advisory committees, or ACs, to the boards of Fisheries and Game. “The AC travel appropriation was not vetoed with credit to the governor for seeing the value of the local citizens involvement,” said Rick Green, special assistant to the commissioner. “I’m told it will be tight but we think we can still manage the meetings.” The funding for directors of the state habitat and subsistence divisions (about $400,000) was rolled into the Office of Management and Budget, but their functions remain under ADFG. Vincent-Lang said he opted to not fill those positions and instead make the two divisions into “sections” to be able to retain more staff. “I probably would have lost two permitters out of habitat and two staff members that go out and conduct community surveys in the subsistence division just to have a director in those roles,” he explained. “There are deputy operations managers for each of those new sections. The one for habitat reports to Deputy Commissioner Ben Mulligan and the subsistence section reports directly to me. The functions of subsistence and habitat remain at ADF&G.” Seafood contest call The call is out for new seafood products for the 27th annual Alaska Symphony of Seafoods competition that will be celebrated at two gala events. The Symphony, hosted by the Alaska Fisheries Development Foundation, showcases new seafood products to boost their value and appeal to a wider range of customers. It features four categories: retail, food service, Beyond the Plate and Beyond the Egg. “Beyond the Plate features byproducts or ‘specialty’ products. We’ve had salmon leather wallets things made of chitosan from crab shells, fish oil capsules, and pet treats is another big one,” said AFDF Executive Director Julie Decker. “Beyond the Egg includes products made with roe,” she added. “It could be a paste or jarred salmon roe or pollock roe. It is some of the high value and high nutrition part of the seafood that comes out of Alaska waters and we really want to encourage more roe product development.” Decker said the Symphony event is on a mission to acquire more major sponsors for three-year commitments to provide more money and stability for the dual seafood soirees. “We need more money in order to do more with the Symphony and have more impact for the industry and the coastal communities that rely on the industry,” Decker said. Another push is to grow the competition beyond the dozen or so entries the Symphony usually receives. “They can be from a company in the state, in the U.S. or in another country. Anyone that makes anything out of Alaska seafood can enter,” Decker said. The seafood entries will be judged at Pacific Marine Expo on Nov. 20 and first place winners will be announced there on Nov. 22. Second and third place winners, plus the grand prize, will be kept secret until a Feb. 24 Juneau legislative reception. Symphony winners get a free trip to the Seafood Expo North America in Boston in March. Decker said the Symphony has even more benefits in store for its winners. “We plan to start working with retailers to get commitments that they will give retail space to Symphony winners.” Product entries are due to AFDF by Oct. 15. D.C. does salmon In what’s got to rank near the top for savvy promotions, Bristol Bay sockeye salmon will be featured for a week this month at nearly 30 restaurants in Washington, D.C., and Wegman’s locations in Maryland and Virginia. “Really they signed up very quickly. All we had to do was tell people we have this massive wild salmon fishery in Bristol Bay Alaska, the largest in the world, and we want to create a special event around that to connect people to the place that it comes from and the people,” said Andy Wink, executive director of the Bristol Bay Regional Seafood Development Association. The group, funded and operated by fishermen, was able to build “Salmon Week” based on chef and retail relationships it has cemented in recent years, and through its use of slick promotions in stores and on social media. The brand building outreach is bankrolled by a 1 percent tax on the catches of Bristol Bay’s nearly 1,600 drift gillnetters, which they’ve paid since 2007. For 2018, Wink said that added up to $3 million; the RSDA can use the money in any way it chooses. From the get-go the RSDA invested in chilling systems and infrastructure to boost overall fish quality. Processors rewarded chilling with bonuses that this year could pay fishermen $1.65 per pound or far more. Wink said chilling has been the group’s best return on investment. “From an ROI (return on investment) perspective you know that chilled fish are getting bonuses of usually 20 cents or better and it often unlocks bonuses which are far in excess of that,” he said. “These are really high returning projects for us. Last year when we added it all up, the amount of chilled fish we produced by RSDA investments almost paid for all of the funding that we would normally get through the assessment.” Why should Alaskans elsewhere care about salmon catches and quality at Bristol Bay? “In the context of the Alaska salmon industry, Bristol Bay is really a market moving fishery. In 2018 it was about half of Alaska’s total salmon value,” Wink said, adding that all but three Alaska regions are home to residents who “fish the Bay.” “I think the only borough and census areas that don’t have a Bristol Bay permit holder are Nome, Skagway and Yakutat. Every other place has some residents who own a commercial fishing permit at Bristol Bay,” Wink said. “You’d be hard pressed to find any other fishery that has that type of scale and scope to it. What happens in Bristol Bay affects the entire state in a lot of different ways.” Bristol Bay Salmon Week is set for Sept. 16-20. www.bristolbaysalmonweek.com. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Enthusiasm continues building for mariculture industry

Underwater and out of sight are the makings of a major Alaska industry with two anchor crops that clean the planet while pumping out lots of cash: shellfish and seaweed. Alaskans have now applied for more than 2,000 acres of new or expanding undersea farms, double the footprint from two years ago, ranging in size from 0.02 acres at Halibut Cove to nearly 300 acres at Craig. Nearly 60 percent of the newest applicants plan to grow kelp with the remainder growing a mix of kelp and/or Pacific oysters, said Cynthia Pring-Ham, aquatic farming coordinator at the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, which issues the permits. ADFG partners with the Department of Natural Resources which leases the tidal and submerged lands for farms. Currently in Alaska, 36 operators are producing primarily Pacific oysters in Southeast, Prince William Sound and Kachemak Bay. Their combined crops of about 2 million bivalves have sales topping $1.5 million from a mostly local customer base. It’s the faster growing seaweed that has spawned wider interest, especially from regions that aren’t as hospitable to growing shellfish. Alaska’s first kelp farm permits were issued in 2016 at Kodiak; 15,000 pounds of brown and sugar kelp was harvested in 2017 and sold to California food maker Blue Evolution for $10,000. Last year the Kodiak output jumped to 90,000 pounds worth more than $33,000. Now, besides kelp, 21 Alaska growers also have added dulce, nori and sea lettuce to their macroalgae or shellfish menus. It will go into a global commercial seaweed market that is projected to top $22 billion by 2024, with human consumption as the largest segment. The interest is quickly spreading to other Alaska regions. This year two kelp applications were submitted from Sand Point and queries have come from the Pribilof Islands, said Julie Decker, chair of a state mariculture task force created in 2016 by former Gov. Bill Walker to lay the foundation for “a $100 million industry in 20 years.” “People are calling from St. Paul and St. George in the Bering Sea. They are interested and want to know what they need to do to get started,” she said. “I can’t see a single downside to it,” said ADFG Commercial Fisheries Division Director Sam Rabung, who is also a task force member. Rabung, who began researching kelp in Japan in the 1980s and has worked in salmon enhancement and mariculture in Alaska for more than 35 years, called diversification into seaweed farming “the biggest change to the industry I’ve seen in the last five years.” It is getting legs for several reasons, he said. “It’s a really good fit with our existing fishery infrastructure. We have a blue workforce, an ocean workforce of fishing communities, vessels, fishermen, processors that in many cases get used in a kind of boom-and-bust manner. This gives an additional shoulder to a season,” he said. “The giant kelp that we’re focusing on in Alaska right now, the brown algae, can be used for everything from food to nutritional supplements to animal feed ingredients, biofuels, soil amendments and everything in between. We’re just at the tip of the iceberg in terms of the uses of algae,” he added. Plus, growing seaweed benefits the planet. As the “trees” of coastal ecosystems, seaweeds pull massive amounts of carbon from the atmosphere, absorbing five times more than land-based plants. But planting the earth friendly kelp fronds in the fall and plucking them in the spring is the easy part. “What do you do when you harvest them? You need to have something in place to take the product and make use of it before you ever plant your seeded lines,” Rabung said. As the fledgling algae industry develops, the task force is advocating that some growers form clusters to “really get things going.” “Getting a larger number of farms concentrated around a hub to get the synergy to create that critical mass and reduce the cost of logistics, transports, and support services that the farms need,” Rabung explained. “We need it to become a company, an industry. That’s where the state will see its biggest benefit.” At least two Alaska processors, Ocean Beauty and Silver Bay Seafoods, are involved in the new industry and buyers want product. “They need to know there is enough steady volume to make sure it’s worthwhile,” Rabung said. An early obstacle for aspiring Alaska growers, Rabung said, is financing, although the state’s revolving loan fund has made its first loan for a kelp farm. He said another is “acceptability.” “The way our statutes are written aquatic farming is the lowest priority use of coastal waters,” he said. “When we review a farm permit, we’re looking at its compatibility with existing uses as one of the criteria, such as fisheries. We can’t put farms in places that are traditional seine hook-offs or troll drags or dive fisheries or subsistence harvest areas.” Applicants also must be aware of navigational hazards and marine mammal haul outs when they are siting their farms. An online, interactive GIS map showing site areas and other data for Alaska’s entire coastline is being compiled and will help provide more information. It also can be shared with state agencies to help speed up the permitting process which has a two year backlog. “We’re kind of victims of own success because for years we’ve been building a foundation and network of people all working in the same direction. “Now the industry is stepping up and submitting applications for new farms and it coincides with staff and budget reductions at DNR,” Decker said. She added that Gov. Michael J. Dunleavy’s administration is “enthusiastic” about the mariculture industry’s potential. “We’re getting really good interest and support,” Decker said, “All the pieces are in place to move forward.” Farmer training sessions will be held next year in Ketchikan, Sitka and Kodiak and perhaps other communities, Decker said. Pink salmon payout Applications should now be in the hands of Alaska salmon fishermen and processors hurt by the 2016 pink salmon fishery failure. National Marine Fisheries Service last month approved $56.3 million in relief funds at Kodiak, Prince William Sound, Chignik, Lower Cook Inlet, South Alaska Peninsula, Southeast Alaska, and Yakutat. Funds are being distributed by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. Salmon permit holders who show losses from the pink bust will split $31.8 million based on average dockside values over even years from 2006 to 2014. Skippers are responsible for compiling data for their crews in applications that are due Oct. 31. The PSMFC will then distribute applications to crew members to apply for disaster payments through January 31, 2020. The relief funds should be in hand six to eight weeks after an application is accepted. Alaska processors also must apply by Oct. 31 to receive their share of $17.7 million in relief funds. Workers will be eligible for an equal share of 15 percent of an eligible processor’s total disaster payment. The funds also include $3.63 million for pink salmon research. Of that, $450,000 goes to Kodiak’s Kitoi Bay Hatchery for its Saltwater Marking Sampling project. The Southeast Alaska Coastal Monitoring Survey will get $680,000 to help with pink salmon forecasting research. And $2.5 million will go to the Alaska Hatchery Research Project that since 2011 has studied interactions of hatchery and wild salmon in Prince William Sound and Southeast. Details are still being worked out on distributing $2.4 million to municipalities that were affected by the pink crash. More trade taxes China will add an additional 10 percent tariff to imports of U.S. seafood products starting Sept. 1, bringing the total to 35 percent in the latest escalation in the trade war with President Donald Trump. Undercurrent News reports that frozen Alaska salmon, cod or pollock that go to China for processing into patties or portions and are then re-exported will remain exempt from the extra taxes. In total, the additional tariffs, not only on seafood, apply to $75 billion in imported goods. In response, Trump sent out a series of Twitter messages saying: “We don’t need China and, frankly, would be far better off without them. Our great American companies are hereby ordered to immediately start looking for an alternative to China, including bringing your companies home and making your products in the U.S.A.” Sales of U.S. seafood to China dropped 36 percent since the 25 percent tariff was imposed in July 2018 valued at $340 million. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Bristol Bay business boot camp set for September

Investment that comes from within, not from without, is the motivation behind a boot camp that will jump start and nurture businesses in communities throughout Bristol Bay. Through Sept. 15 locals with good ideas, start-ups or existing businesses across the region will compete to attend a three-day boot camp that provides in-depth business education, networking and advice. First, they must make the grade in a simple application process. The 10 or 12 who make that cut will go to the boot camp and be judged on business feasibility and contributions to their community. Three winners will receive up to $20,000 in grants for consulting and technical assistance. The business boosters include the Bristol Bay Native Corp., The Nature Conservancy of Alaska and the Bristol Bay Development Fund, a subsidiary of BBNC that is infusing $5 million of “nurture capital” into local businesses that benefit its nearly 10,000 shareholders. “Guided by our traditions, we also know that investing in the culture, education, and sustainable future of our communities pays off for all of us,” BBNC states on its website. The group has partnered with the Path to Prosperity, or P2P, program by Spruce Roots Inc., an arm of the Juneau-based Sealaska Corp. that focuses on business coaching, technical assistance and tailored loans. Over six years P2P has provided management training and mentoring to nearly 80 Southeast businesses. The Coppa ice cream shop in Juneau, for example, went on to win top honors at the Symphony of Seafood and jars of Barnacle Foods kelp salsa varieties are in stores throughout Alaska and nationwide. Path to Prosperity received the Silver Award for Excellence in Economic Development by the International Economic Development Council in 2015. “They provide assistance all along the way, even if you just want some feedback on your application. It only asks about six questions to see if your business concept has any legs,” said Doug Griffin, executive director of the Southwest Alaska Municipal Conference, or SWAMC, which represents the Bristol Bay region. “It’s all about the sustainability of small communities,” Griffin added. “It’s also a way to show entrepreneurial spirit in a community. If you see a small business startup and it’s successful, it gives something for the next generation. They see that if they want to stay in their community where jobs are so limited, they can make their own job by starting a business. It’s something they can take pride in. And it’s kind of the American way to be a small businessperson doing well.” Find more information at www.bbnc.net or contact Cindy Mittlestadt at (907) 265-7865 or [email protected] Fall fish board call The state Board of Fisheries is organizing its lineup for the upcoming meeting cycle through March that will include Lower and Upper Cook Inlet, Kodiak and statewide crab and supplemental issues. Anyone wanting consideration of a fish issue from any other regions can submit an Agenda Change Request, or ACR, through Aug. 26. “The board recognizes that some of the other subjects that are important but aren’t in cycle so this is an opportunity for the public to submit proposals for the board to review at its October work session,” said board Executive Director Glenn Haight. The agenda change requests must fall under one of three criteria to be considered. “If the request is for a fishery conservation purpose or reason, if it is to correct an error in regulation, or if it is to correct an effect on a fishery that was unforeseen when the regulation was adopted,” Haight explained, adding that the board avoids requests that deal with out of cycle allocation disputes The board will consider the agenda change requests at its work session, Oct. 23 and 24 at the Egan Center in Anchorage. The Alaska Board of Fisheries includes seven members who set policy for Alaska’s subsistence, commercial, sport, guided sport, and personal use fisheries, and management is based on their decisions. Bycatch watch Alaska fishery managers closely track everything that comes and goes over the rails on boats in the Gulf and Bering Sea, including halibut taken as bycatch. The National Marine Fisheries Service posts all the catch data by gear type, region and fishery in federal waters (three to 200 miles out), down to the name of the boats. A few months ago, that caught the attention of longtime fisherman turned broadcaster Jeff Lockwood, who has turned the bycatch numbers into weekly reports on KBBI in Homer, the nation’s top halibut port. “I thought this is kind of interesting. Everybody talks about and knows about halibut bycatch, but as fishermen none of us really knew what was going on,” Lockwood said. “When I saw this information was there and just a week or 10 days behind what’s actually happening, I decided to compile and organize it. With any kind of numbers like that they’re kind of buried and you have to put in some work to sift through it. A 2018 halibut catch summary by the International Pacific Halibut Commission showed that coastwide landings of Pacific halibut from California to the Bering Sea totaled 23.5 million pounds, a low for the last decade. Commercial fisheries took 61 percent of the halibut catch, recreational users took 19 percent and 3 percent went for subsistence. Halibut bycatch in other fisheries accounted for 16 percent of the total catch limit. Lockwood said he is concerned about the bycatch impacts on a fragile Pacific stock and he hopes his reports create more understanding, especially between dueling halibut users. “In Homer the halibut longliners and charter operators tend to get at each other’s throats over who’s taking all of the fish,” he said. “It’s sort of hey guys, stop fighting amongst yourselves and look at this other stuff going on.” The reports also list bycatch of chinook and other salmon and crabs. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Some Chamber members oppose policies, but admit lack of engagement

The Alaska Chamber touts itself as “the voice of Alaska business” but seafood industry and coastal community members are largely left out of the conversation. The chamber isn’t entirely at fault; it appears that most of those members are not speaking up. Three cases in point. In February the chamber was one of the first to “applaud Governor Dunleavy for proposing a spending plan that matches current revenues.” In April the chamber testified in support of the Pebble mine draft environmental impact statement, or DEIS, “in the name of due process.” (The Pebble Partnership is a chamber member.) The chamber’s top federal priority is to “support oil and gas exploration and development in Alaska’s federal areas including the Outer Continental Shelf, National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, Cook Inlet, and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.” But just about every Alaska coastal community strongly opposed Gov. Michael J. Dunleavy’s budget; likewise, they spoke out strongly against President Donald Trump’s administration plans for oil and gas development in Alaska’s offshore waters, and nearly all fishing interests have protested what they perceive as sloppy and biased science in the Pebble DEIS. In a canvassing of nearly 25 coastal chamber members and trade groups, not one said they were aware of those policy positions nor were they queried (including at Bristol Bay). “No, we were not contacted, period,” said Clay Koplin, Cordova mayor and chamber member. “We disagree with the state chamber’s executive committee or whoever formulated that. Granted, we seldom attend meetings,” he added. Ditto Kodiak Chamber Executive Director Sarah Phillips. “Our current membership with the Alaska Chamber of Commerce does not reflect agreement or alignment on political issues,” Phillips said. “I find it very unsettling,” said a spokesman for the Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association which represents six remote communities. “We were not contacted by the chamber regarding the formation of its legislative priorities and policy positions,” said Doug Griffin, executive director of the Southwest Alaska Municipal League, which serves the Aleutian/Pribilofs, Bristol Bay and Kodiak. “SWAMC is not a very active member and I have not attended any annual meetings. I do not think we would have much impact, but perhaps we could at least provide a dissent on some of its positions. I think many of the chamber’s positions are misguided,” he added. “No contact” also was the response of chamber members Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute, United Fishermen of Alaska, Pacific Seafood Processors Association and At-Sea Processors Association, which commented that, “we do get minutes and position papers regularly with opportunity to provide input.” Alaska Chamber CEO Kati Capozzi was surprised at the responses and said the way in which positions and priorities are determined is “quite possibly the most democratic, egalitarian process of any statewide association that I’m aware of.” Every year an email goes out to all members in good standing advising them that the process is open and “it is the opportunity to have your voice heard,” she explained. Each fall, members gather at a policy forum to propose positions for the upcoming year. Based on submitted proposals, chamber members adopt positions on issues that impact Alaska’s economy and the board of directors select the top state and federal priorities. “Every position makes it to our membership at our policy forum,” Capozzi added. “You must be present to vote, but that’s when any member can vote to adopt a position or not. No matter how big or small a business is, it’s one member, one vote. Then we notify all members afterward and tell them what we will be championing for the next year. It’s really a unique process that helps us have a lot of credibility as we move to advocate for the positions that our membership has voted on.” For actions that fall outside of the fall voting time frame (such as the governor’s February budget debut and the window for commenting on the Pebble DEIS), Capozzi said the adopted positions provide a “blueprint that serves as my guiding light for the next year.” “Our February press release applauding the budget directly related to our top state priority to support reduction of spending to sustainable levels. We did not and will not come out in support or opposition to the Pebble project but we are constant advocates for due process,” she explained, adding that “I think that the positions that we come up with are very representative of the overall business community concerns. I don’t know how we can be more inclusive with our process, but a good point is being more communicative with the statements and positions we do come out with.” The Alaska Chamber claims it has “700+ members representing 100,000 employees and 30+ local chambers.” Associations, non-profits and businesses with annual gross revenues less than $1 million pay a $500 annual membership fee; others pay from $800 to $7,200 based on gross revenues. The seafood industry represents only about 1 percent of the membership and Capozzi said she would “love, love to see that number grow.” “I have strong relationships within that community and I hope to get as many of those friends in the industry more involved because the more involvement we have from the business community, the more diverse and better off our positions will be. I believe that firmly,” she added. Chamber members can submit their positions and priorities preferences through Sept. 6. The fall meeting, where attendees will vote, is set for Oct. 28-30 in Girdwood. Best fish messages Alaska’s seafood marketing messages are resonating with consumers and it’s helping to home in on how to persuade them to buy and eat more. “What we know now is that the consumer not only wants a product that is good for them, but good for the planet,” said Michael Kohan, technical program director for the Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute. ASMI pinned down that message from a Technomics Foodservice research survey that revealed that 35 percent of consumers are eating more seafood. “When we asked those consumers why, they actually identified aspects of Alaska’s seafood aspects or attributes found in our tag lines — wild, natural and sustainable,” she said at an Accelerate Alaska conference. “Wild” resonates in terms of quality, and “natural” was seen in Alaska’s pristine environment. Consumers said they want to be able to choose a pure source of protein as part of a healthier diet. “Sustainable” definitions vary by person and region, Kohan said, but origins and jobs are highly valued. “The U.S. consumers thought knowing where seafood comes from was important as well as by purchasing seafood they were supporting American jobs,” she said. Kohan added that ASMI believes the already winning “wild, natural and good for the planet messages” give Alaska seafood an advantage in world markets. They will build on the quality, nutrition and sustainability themes and “personalize” outreach by telling people why Alaska seafood is good for them and what body parts get the most benefit. She said that ASMI is becoming more involved in research that applies Alaska seafood to nutrition and healing. “For instance, ASMI is working with the industry to understand if omega 3 content found from DHA and EPA fatty acids in Alaska wild salmon is important or can affect the pain that is triggered by inflammation for breast cancer survivors,” Kohan said. ASMI also is striving to make full utilization of seafood a part of Alaska’s sustainability message by expanding markets for fish “specialty” products to pet food, nutraceutical and medical industries. ^ Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Mexico becomes top US trade partner one year into China conflict

It’s been one year, so how’s that trade war with China working out for the nation’s seafood industry? As with farmers, there’s not much winning and ongoing tweeted skirmishes have global fish markets skittish. The quick take is the 25 percent retaliatory tariff imposed by China on U.S. imports last July caused a 36 percent drop in U.S. seafood sales, valued at $340 million, according to an in-depth analysis of Chinese customs data by Undercurrent News. “Chinese imports of US seafood fell from $1.3 billion in the 12 months prior to tariffs (July 1, 2017-June 30, 2018), to $969 million in the 12 months after (July 1, 2018-June 30, 2019), underlining the heavy impact of weaker demand for U.S. seafood subject to tariffs, while poor catch of U.S. wild-caught seafood was also to blame,” the News wrote. Until then, China had been Alaska’s biggest seafood buyer purchasing 54 percent of seafood exports in 2017 valued at close to $1 billion. The tit for tat taxes hit nearly all Alaska seafood; exempted were millions of pounds of frozen Alaska pink and chum salmon and cod that are sent to China for processing into fillets or portions and exported back to the US and other countries. Those numbers took a big slide. Over the past year, China imported $136 million of Pacific salmon, down 56 percent, and reflecting a 62 percent drop in volume. Imports of frozen cod decreased to 53 million pounds valued at $91 million, both down 37 percent. The 25 percent tax also pushed the U.S. from China’s second largest seafood supplier to fourth place, behind Russia, Ecuador and Canada. The trade uncertainties have had a downward press on many fish prices and forced Alaska salmon buyers into a more “conservative mode,” especially with pink and chum salmon, said a major Alaska processor. “The tariffs are not on but they are not off. Could they be on tomorrow or never hit? The threat is always out there,” he said. Meanwhile, China is turning away from the U.S. market, and selling products to Europe in direct competition with American producers, said John Sackton, market expert and publisher of SeafoodNews.com. “Products that China is not shipping to the U.S. due to the trade war are going elsewhere, and where they compete directly with U.S. products, it means U.S. exporters face a more competitive situation,” he said, adding that American brands will suffer. “To the extent buying American in China becomes unpatriotic, the Chinese will begin to shun U.S. seafood products and actively seek out other sources, such as Norway, Ecuador, and Russia,” Sackton said. “In my view, the greatest long term danger from the trade war is that it could lead to a generation of Chinese who look down on American products.” Doug Vincent-Lang, commissioner of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, said he believes the escalating trade wars are the seafood industry’s biggest challenge. “In talking with processors, they are uncertain as to the economic viability of delivering their products and getting them onto the shelves of their consumers,” Vincent-Lang said. “When I took this job I understood how we managed our fisheries but I didn’t really have a good appreciation of that dance between how we manage our fisheries in the context of the global economy and world markets.” Meanwhile, President Donald Trump tweeted that beginning Sept. 1 the U.S. will impose a 10 percent tariff on the remaining $300 billion in goods the U.S. imports from China which will include more seafood. The Wall Street Journal reports that: “The total value of bilateral goods traded with China, $271 billion in the first half of the year, fell short of that with both Canada and Mexico for the first time since 2005. Mexico is now the U.S.’s top trading partner.” Fish trade assist As the federal government prepares to roll out $16 billion to help farmers caught in the cross fire of Trump’s trade wars, Democratic congressmen want fishermen included in the deal. Currently, fishermen and seafood producers are not eligible to apply for US Department of Agriculture trade assistance programs. Oregon Sen. Ron Wyden and Massachusetts Rep. Seth Moulton filed legislation in late June to amend the Magnuson-Stevens Act to enable the federal government to expand the scope of fishery disasters to include trade disputes. Alaska and Maine’s congressional delegations also wrote separate letters to the Trump administration asking it to provide the same relief for fishermen that has been created to help farmers hurt by tariffs. Salmon prices Icicle Seafoods was the first buyer at Bristol Bay to post base prices for sockeye at $1.35 per pound, up from the average $1.26 last year, and 40 cents per pound for chums, an increase of four cents. KDLG in Dillingham reported that Icicle also is paying 15-cent bonuses for iced or refrigerated seawater fish for both drift and setnetters, plus 8 cents more for chilled/bled, and a five-cent premium for floated fish. All told, that’s $1.63 per pound for sockeyes at Bristol Bay. Alaska General Seafoods, North Pacific Seafoods and Peter Pan at Bristol Bay also have posted a sockeye base of $1.35. Kodiak base prices have taken a dip with reports of $1.45 for sockeyes, 27 cents for pinks and 25 cents for chums. That compares to last year averages of $1.56, 39 cents and 51 cents, respectively. At Cook Inlet, sockeye prices were reported at $1.70, down from $2.27. Southeast Alaska trollers were averaging $5.13 a pound for chinook, $1.56 for coho and 61 cents for chums, according to fish tickets. Prices for seine and driftnet-caught salmon were reported at 55 cents for chums, down from 90 cents, sockeyes at $1.90, a drop of six cents, and 30 centsfor pinks, down from 38 cents per pound on average last year. At Norton Sound, chum prices at 50 cents were down from 80 cents and coho at $1.40 was the same as last year. Average Alaska salmon prices per pound across all regions for 2018 were: chinook, $5.98; sockeye, $1.33; coho, $1.34; chum, 78 cents; pink, 45 cents. Prices do not include bonuses. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

ADFG left out of ‘reverse sweep’; Catch 49 ups offerings

As Alaska lawmakers continue their struggle to keep the state afloat, the Commercial Fisheries Division dodged a bullet that would have removed millions of dollars from its budget. An obscure procedural action within the capital budget called a “reverse sweep” prevents dozens of program-specific pots of money from being automatically drained into the Constitutional Budget Reserve, which happened this year after House Republicans would not provide the 30 votes needed to execute the move. “The sweep is money that is not spent in a single year. In this case, it comes from certain sources, such as test fish receipts, commercial crew licenses and sale of Commercial Fisheries Entry Commission permits and licenses,” explained Alaska Department of Fish and Game Commissioner Doug Vincent-Lang. “There is usually unexpended funds within the budget that typically carry over by the reverse sweep into next year’s budget, and they are integrated into the department’s operational budget as there is an expectation those moneys will be available.” There was a lot of confusion about what the sweeps swept up, he added. “From the ADFG perspective, there was an initial document that showed all of those different pots of money are sweepable. However, we have since learned that the actual budget that was signed by the governor and passed by the legislature included language that makes the test fish receipts, crew member licenses and the CFEC licenses non-sweepable.” Money from test fish receipts comes from sampling salmon or other species that are caught by the state to gauge run strength and collect other biological data and then are sold. Crew license sales and CFEC dollars from permits, vessel licenses and other fees go into separate savings accounts; more comes from General Fund program receipts, primarily from crew license sales. “The test fishing receipts are on the order of $2.5 million, crew licenses bring in $2.5 to $3 million and those are built into our management program for the next year,” Vincent-Lang said. “We use them for doing things like crab and shellfish management to herring management, conducting aerial surveys and running weirs and sonar operations.” Vincent-Lang said the Commercial Fisheries Division is working out the details of a nearly $1 million dollar budget cut, which he calls “not life threatening.” “There’s going to be impacts on some weir operations and sonar operations, but we we’ll be able to manage around them,” he said, adding that things would have been far worse if the test fishing and license receipts were swept away. “Not all of that would’ve been spent in a single year, but it would have meant somewhere on the order of $2.5 to $4 million worth of unexpected budget impacts to the division of commercial fisheries,” Vincent-Lang said. The approved fiscal year 2020 budget for the commercial fisheries division is about $71 million, of which $52 million is from general funds. Catch 49 grows fish sales The Catch 49 program that delivers locally caught seafood to Alaskans across the state has expanded its 900 customers to include a growing wholesale base and a retail store. Princess Holland America lodges in Denali are now one of its biggest buyers for jig caught rockfish and Tanner crab from Kodiak. The Bridge Restaurant in Anchorage and the Muse Restaurant at the Anchorage Museum are clients, as is North Star Quality Meats, the protein supplier for all of the AC stores in rural Alaska. “We are really proud to be one of the first people to supply Alaska caught seafood to those rural communities. It’s kind of shocking they weren’t getting that before, but we’re happy to be filling that gap,” said, Katy Rexford, director of Catch 49, which is an arm of the non-profit Alaska Marine Conservation Council. It’s the eighth year for the “boat to table” program described as a community supported fishery. Customers pre-order their seafood favorites in advance and pick it up at distribution hubs across the state a few weeks later. Up to 15 boats fish for Catch 49 products now, Rexford said, and they are always on the lookout for more fishermen across the state. The group offers sockeye salmon from Bristol Bay and Copper River, halibut, Tanner crab, king crab from Norton Sound, Kodiak rockfish, shrimp from Prince William Sound, octopus, sablefish, smoked products and “just about anything you can pull out of the water.” Rexford said when the seafood arrives at the various distribution centers, it’s like “fishmas!” “I get to hand customers these big beautiful bags of gorgeous fillets or shrimp and people are so happy to be able to buy the best seafood in the world and to know they are supporting fishing families and the fishing way of life in our small Alaska coastal communities,” she said. “One hundred percent of our proceeds is supporting policy work and conservation programs that buoy our fisheries and keep them sustainable and productive for generations to come.” Catch 49 summer orders are being taken through Aug. 5 at www.catch49.org; drop offs will take place a few days later in Fairbanks, Seward, Homer and the Mat-Su Valley. Anchorage customers can now pick up seafood every Thursday from 12 p.m. to 6 p.m. at a new retail location at 636 E. 15th Avenue. “Instead of four or five times a year, people in the Anchorage area can now order seafood year round. We’re trying to position ourselves as a more regular source of sustainable seafood,” Rexford said, adding that Catch 49 hopes to expand the opportunity to other regions. Fraser salmon stuck There could be fewer wild salmon from British Columbia competing with Alaska this year due to a rockslide 250 miles up the Fraser River that is keeping the fish from their spawning grounds. “All that rock on top of that face has fallen into the river which is confining passage for fish. I’ve never seen anything to this degree on this side of the river,” Dale Mickey, a manager with Fisheries and Oceans Canada, told CTV News Vancouver. Nearly 80 percent of the sockeye runs from eight tributaries head up the Fraser River, which this year is expected to be 3.5 million fish. A run of 180,000 reds a day is starting to arrive and a sense of urgency has rescuers resorting to a temporary solution: flying the fish upriver by helicopter. Crews have begun air-lifting the fish from a holding pond below the rockslide where the sockeyes are netted, tagged and put in oxygenated aluminum tanks for transport and release upriver. They also are working nearly round the clock to secure the canyon and create a “natural fishway” using artificial salmon ladders inserted into the river. Another assist could come from pressurized tubes called fish cannons created by Seattle-based Whooshh Innovations. The cannons literally shoot the fish up and over dams or other obstructions blocking their migrations. Company CEO Vince Bryan said results have shown that the cannons provide far less stress on the fish than other transports, like trucks and helicopters. “People have asked us how we know it’s okay for the fish, and we tell them because when they come out of the tube, they turn their heads and look back at us waving their tail and saying thanks,” he said in a phone interview. “In all seriousness, studies we did on the fish cortisol (stress) levels as they were going into the tube were not raised.” Cohos will arrive later and the Fraser produces more chinook salmon than all the rivers of Puget Sound combined. Canada’s provincial and federal governments say they will do everything possible to make sure the salmon are able to reach their spawning grounds. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: ADFG receives barest of cuts among Dunleavy’s vetoes

Fisheries fared better than most in terms of Gov. Michael J. Dunleavy’s budget cuts. Just less than $1 million was cut from the commercial fisheries division of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, leaving it with an $85 million budget, half from state general funds. “To give the governor credit, he recognized the return on investment,” said ADFG Commissioner Doug Vincent-Lang. “It’s a theme I had all the way through the Legislature that we take a $200 million budget of which about $50 million is unrestricted general funds and we turn that into an $11 billion return to our state. And I think he got that.” Vincent-Lang added that Dunleavy also did not veto the travel budget for the Board of Fisheries and its advisory committees. It’s indefinite still how the budget cuts will play out, and Vincent-Lang said he is trying to avoid staff cuts to the 700 comfish positions. “I suspect we may have some but we will try to do that through vacancies and a variety of other things as we have retirements,” he said. Also set to get axed is funding for research projects, such as salmon in-season sampling and Tanner crab surveys at Prince William Sound, and five salmon weirs at Kodiak and Chignik. Salmon counting is likely to be reduced at the Yukon River’s Eagle and Pilot Station sonars, along with various stock assessment surveys for groundfish. “I’ve asked my staff to look at their overall program, and not necessarily cut the projects, but take the ones that have the least impact on the management of our fisheries across our state in terms of economic value back and cut those,” he explained, acknowledging that the cutbacks could lead to more cautious management. “Clearly, any time you reduce your forecast ability you become more precautionary in your in-season management approach until you can become more certain,” he said. Vincent-Lang said the state hopes to form local partnerships to help fund shortfalls, “like the Bristol Bay Science Initiative and Yukon River tribal groups to try to find ways that we can replace that money to ensure that we minimize the impact to our ongoing management programs.” Those partnerships “are the path forward” for Alaska’s fishing industry to jointly fund research, he stressed. “If we are going to be continually dependent on state general funds, that presents a challenge,” he said. “We need to look for ways to partner with different groups to get a diversified funding stream.” Partnership also will be important to fund ADFG’s special areas management, which is facing a $280,000 budget cut for its oversight of 12 game refuges, 17 critical habitat areas and three wildlife sanctuaries. Vincent-Lang said using hunting dollars with matching grants in some areas will help make up for that budget shortfall. “The rest of the department, like the Sportfish and Wildlife divisions, are largely funded by federal funds that are dedicated to those activities and we match them with hunting and sport fishing license dollars. There’s very little state general funds in those divisions,” he explained. The Habitat and Subsistence Divisions will remain under the auspices of ADFG, despite reports that two director-level positions and associated funding would move to the Office of Management and Budget. Vincent-Lang said those two positions were open when he took the job and he opted not to fill them. “I didn’t want to lose actual staff members in those divisions that were equal to a director position,” he explained. “If a director position cost $200,000 I would have lost three or four staff members in both divisions to make up for that. I willingly gave up those two positions to OMB because they needed them, but the activity they were doing remains under the supervision of ADFG.” The total budget for ADFG is $200 million. Fish schools state workers Several hundred of Alaska’s fishery managers are graduates of the College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, or CFOS, an arm of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The college offers degree programs in fisheries, marine biology and oceanography, and of its nearly 1,000 graduates more than half have come out of the fisheries program and work in the state. “That is a remarkable number. I don’t know any other fishery department in the country that can say half of their graduates still work in their home state,” said Brad Moran, dean of CFOS, adding that the college has seen steady year over year increases in enrollment of undergraduates. Moran is awaiting the fallout from Dunleavy’s evisceration of the university budget. CFOS, which has a staff and faculty of about 140, also operates campuses in Juneau and Kodiak and its collaboration with Alaska Sea Grant extends its reach to a dozen more locations. Moran said nothing is safe. “There’s not any faculty, staff, student or location that will not be impacted should the veto for the university budget not be overridden, “he said. “That has to be crystal clear. There is nothing that will be left untouched,” With the number of incoming state dollars driven by the university, Moran said he just doesn’t get it. “It’s been shown that for every dollar the state spends, we’re bringing in about $6 university-wide to the state. I don’t see how you cannot say that’s a great turn on investment,” Moran said, (unknowingly echoing the words of ADFG’s Vincent-Lang). Moran pointed to the CFOS-operated research ice breaker Sikuliaq home-ported at Seward as an example. “We are entrusted to operate a $200 million federal asset in that vessel which is owned and paid for by the National Science Foundation. All of the funding for that ship is externally coming into the state. That’s only one example of state dollars driven by the university,” Moran said. He added that Alaska’s university teachers and researchers are at the forefront in the world in terms of rapidly changing ocean and Arctic conditions. “All require basic research and those investments from the federal government are leveraged by the state one dollar on six,” he emphasized. “You can always look for economies of scale and improvements in cost efficiency,” Moran added. “What you cannot do is drop the hammer overnight to this extent and expect an organization to deliver the same kind of value to the state. But we will do our very best.” Alaskans Own delivers Alaskans Own, a Sitka-based seafood delivery service, is celebrating 10 years of providing local fish not to Outsiders, but to other Alaskans, the majority of whom can’t get their hands on the best fish out there. “It’s a crazy statistic that just 1 percent of the seafood that is caught in Alaska stays in Alaska, so 99 percent is exported,” said Natalie Armstrong, outreach assistant for Alaskans Own, a Community Supported Fishery project of the Alaska Longline Fishermen’s Association. The CSF follows a more well-known agriculture model that bridges the gap “from farm to table.” “We’re bridging the gap from ocean to table and connecting more communities to their seafood,” Armstrong said. Alaskans Own has more than 300 subscribers who from May to October can choose different sized packages of portioned halibut, salmon, lingcod, shrimp, sablefish and more. The fish is shipped to hubs in Sitka, Anchorage, Seattle, Juneau, and Fairbanks and also to Outside customers. “Anyone can choose what they want. They can get a mixed bag or 40 pounds of coho and we ship it right to their door,” Armstrong said. A fleet of 100 boats fish for the CSF, and all profits go to the Fishery Conservation Network, an ALFA offshoot that partners fishermen with scientists in local research projects. Armstrong is hopeful other Alaska fishing towns will create CSFs to promote their small boat fleets and protective fishing practices. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

Locals keep share of fish taxes; new tech for cutting crab, salmon farms

One fisheries item that appears to have escaped Gov. Michael J. Dunleavy’s veto pen so far is his desire to divert local fish taxes from coastal communities into state coffers. Dunleavy’s initial budget in February aimed to repeal the sharing of fisheries business and landing taxes that towns and boroughs split 50/50 with the state. Instead, all of the tax revenues would have gone to the state’s general fund, or a loss of $28 million in fiscal year 2020 to fishing communities. “There is a recognition that these are viewed as shared resources, and they should be shared by Alaskans,” press secretary Matt Shuckerow said at the time. “So that’s kind of what this proposal does. It takes shared resources and shares them with all Alaskans, not just some select communities.” The tax split remains in place and the dollars are still destined for fishing towns, said rep. Louise Stutes, R-Kodiak, who also represents Cordova, Yakutat and several smaller towns. “It’s general fund revenue and that has been appropriated to the appropriate communities,” Stutes said in a phone interview. “What we can tell right now is it slipped by unscathed because it appears he did not veto that revenue to the communities that generate the dollars. So, it looks like we’re good to go there.” What’s not so good is the nearly $1 million cut to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game’s commercial fisheries budget. Stutes and Sen. Gary Stevens, R-Kodiak, worry that the shortfall could result in lost harvests. “It’s always short-sighted when you cut Fish and Game. It’s just really crucial that we have the personnel we need to manage our resources and to make sure they continue to be there when we need them,” Stevens told KMXT in Kodiak. Stutes, who chairs the House Fisheries Committee, said it does not make sense to cut state money makers. “In the long run, that creates revenue for the state because it allows all these different fisheries to stay open longer,” she said, adding that lost oversight due to budget cuts will result in more conservative management. “If they do not have the personnel to do the appropriate salmon counts, they’re going to manage very conservatively. And that means less openings or they’ll close the season earlier,” Stutes said. “Those are dollars that the state’s not going to get by the governor vetoing those funds to Fish and Game. It just doesn’t make sense to me under any conditions.” All the amendments that the Alaska Legislature added back into the original ADFG budget were vetoed, including a $280,000 cut to special areas management, which include 12 game refuges, 17 critical habitat areas and three wildlife sanctuaries. Two director-level positions and associated funding from the Habitat and Subsistence Research Divisions will be moved to the Office of Management and Budget and no longer be associated with ADFG related duties. Impacts of the budget cuts were not readily available and all questions are referred to a new [email protected] address. The questions may be directed back to appropriate staff, but “they want everything to be through that address,” said one ADFG employee. “Welcome to our world,” said Stutes. “As a Legislature, we can’t get answers. We can’t speak to department heads. We get no response. We are required to go through the legislative liaison. I have never seen such a lack of communication between any department or between the legislature and the executive branch.” Robots cut crab Radio Canada reports that robotic machines that cut and shuck crab have nabbed a U.S. patent that is being hailed as a breakthrough in fish processing technology worldwide. The system, developed by the Canadian Centre for Fisheries Innovation in Newfoundland, operates at lightning speed on crab at fish plants in eastern Canada. In a shipping container-sized chamber, crabs go down a conveyor belt where each is analyzed by cameras; then, “pick and place” robots saw off the legs, sort and package them and off they go. Along another belt, robots shuck the meat from the crabs, a job that would have been done in China. “Instead of sending all our crab out as sections with the meat in the shell we thought we could attract a higher price if we sold the meat instead,” said Bob Verge, the brains behind the crab robots and managing director at CCFI. While the crab cutting robots are designed for snow crab (Eastern Canada is the world’s largest producer), Verge said the system is adaptable to other crab species and potentially other shellfish. He added that interest is high, including from international markets who are interested in developing robotic solutions to other fish production problems. CCFI has applied for patents in 10 other countries and those are expected to be issued soon. The robot makers are hoping the system will help solve workforce problems in fish plants that often are located in remote regions where it’s tough to recruit enough workers. In this case, Verge said humans will work on more highly skilled machines and computers, and not on the slime line cutting up crab. “If we are going to attract the young people we need, we need better jobs, not more jobs. We have to offer them a better deal,” he said. “In demonstrating this technology to young people, they are very impressed with it.” Land ahoy! Since the 1990s, Alaska’s salmon industry has faced tough competition from farmed fish. Now salmon growers are coming ashore in the U.S. in a big way. The latest trend is raising Atlantic salmon in massive tanks on land, called recirculating aquaculture systems, or RAS. “It really could be considered salmon aquaculture 2.0,” said Garrett Evridge, an economist with the McDowell Group. “The current model is the nearshore farms, and land based technology has really improved upon that. Obviously, there is no worry about interaction with wild stocks.” The closed loop systems, some holding two million gallons of water, also use no antibiotics, additives or pesticides, removing big negatives from fish that are farmed in crowded ocean net pens. The tank water, gotten mostly from deep wells, is filtered similar to an aquarium, and can be constantly reused. A non-stop current also provides exercise to enhance fish health and meat quality. Maine already has attracted two growers. Last month Nordic Aquafarms of Norway announced plans to build an RAS farm in Belfast that will eventually produce 70 million pounds of salmon each year. UK company Aquabanq also announced they will begin building a massive RAS facility in Millinocket next spring. Another Norwegian company — Atlantic Sapphire — is doubling its land purchase in Homestead, Fla., to 160 acres for a RAS facility that aims to grow 500 million pounds of salmon annually by 2030. Since 2017 a Wisconsin company called Superior Fresh has advanced the land-based fish tank model on its 720 acres by attaching it to a greenhouse. Its motto is “great food from the best fish.” Alaska needs to pay attention, Evridge advises. “In sum, these proposed facilities would have production that in some years is equal to current Alaska salmon production. It’s certainly something to pay attention to and it looks like there’s momentum around the industry.” Video deadline Aug. 2 is the deadline to submit short videos that highlight contributions of women in all segments of the seafood industry: fishing, fish farming, processing, selling, managing, teaching, etc. It’s the second round for the contest that was launched last year by the Paris-based group Women in the Seafood Industry. Last year’s winner showcased women who mend nets for a living in Spain. Second place went to a film about California women who formed a clam farming cooperative. Tied for third place were films about female fishing mentors in Newfoundland and women in India who started food trucks to sell their husbands’ catches. The top winner receives 1,000 euros along with two 500-euro prizes. Enter at www.womeninseafood.com. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: ‘Unheard of’ flood of pinks surprises at Alaska Peninsula

The biggest fish story for Alaska’s salmon season so far is the early plug of pinks at the South Alaska Peninsula. By June 28, more than 8 million pink salmon were taken there out of a statewide catch of just more than 8.5 million. Previously, a catch of 2.5 million pinks at the South Peninsula in 2016 was the record for June and last year’s catch was just 1.7 million Managers at the Alaska Department of Fish and Game at Sand Point said at this pace, this month’s catch could near 10 million pinks. “It’s unheard of, really,” ADFG’s Elisabeth Fox told KDLG radio. Typically, pink salmon return to the South Pen region in July and managers believe the earlier arrivals are not homing in on local streams. “We don’t know where these pinks are going,” Fox said. No tagging studies have been done on the pinks passing through, but they could be headed farther north to Norton Sound where record numbers also have shown up for the past few years. “There is no known link between South Peninsula pinks and Norton Sound,” Jim Menard, Area Manager for ADFG in Nome, told SeafoodNews.com. You can track Alaska’s daily salmon catches by region and species with ADFG’s Blue Sheet. There are also in-season summaries that graph the weekly progression of commercial salmon harvests and compare it with five-year averages. Pink pressure All those pink salmon could face stiff headwinds from Russia in global markets. Alaska projects a total catch of nearly 138 million pinks this summer, 97 million more than last year, and Russian fleets expect another huge haul. “If Alaska and Russia both realize their forecasts it will be interesting to see how the market reacts,” said economist Garrett Evridge with the McDowell Group. Just how big might Russia’s pink salmon catch be? “Russia is anticipating a harvest in line with last year which was a record. It was over one billion pounds,” Evridge said. “For context, in 2018 Alaska harvested about 150 million pounds.” Speaking of Russia, we’re into the fifth year of an embargo that Russia put on U.S. seafood and other food purchases in 2014 to retaliate for alleged U.S. meddling in Ukraine affairs. That‘s been an annual loss of over $60 million to Alaska, mostly for salmon roe sales to Russia which had grown by 222 percent in 2013, according to the Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute. Meanwhile, the U.S. continues to buy increasing amounts of seafood from Russia, mostly king crab, snow crab and sockeye salmon. Trade data show the US bought $51 million of Russian-caught seafood in 2018. Dunleavy déjà vu On June 28, Gov. Michael J. Dunleavy cut an additional $444 million from Alaska’s operating budget. All the amendments that the legislature had added back into the original ADFG budget were vetoed. There is a gag order on fisheries staff at ADFG and no one is allowed to talk about the budget cuts. All questions are referred to “the governor’s administration.” United Fishermen of Alaska provided this initial breakdown: • $997,000 less for commercial fisheries management • 50 percent reduction in funds for travel across all divisions (including Commercial Fisheries) • $280,000 less for special areas management • Transfer of two director-level positions and associated funding from the Division of Habitat and Division of Subsistence Research to the Office of Management and Budget. (these jobs will no longer be associated with ADFG-related duties) Shuckin’ time One of Alaska’s most exclusive fisheries gets underway on July 1: weathervane scallops. Just two boats take part in the fishery that spans from Yakutat to the Bering Sea. “It’s not something you can get into easily,” said Nat Nichols, area shellfish manager at ADFG in Kodiak. “It takes a fair bit of institutional knowledge and also specialized gear. Lots of people have some Tanner crab pots lying around but not many have a 15-foot New Bedford scallop dredge in their backyards.” The scallop fishery also is very labor intensive as it includes crews of up to 12 people who catch and shuck the catch. “Every Alaska scallop you’ve ever seen was shucked by hand,” Nichols said. This year the two boats will compete for 267,000 pounds of shucked meats, which are the adductor muscle that keeps the shells closed. They are a wildly popular delicacy and can pay fishermen $6 to $10 per pound, depending on size and grade. Scallop boats drop big dredges that make tows along mostly sandy bottoms of strictly defined fishing regions. The fishery is co-managed with the federal government and has 100 percent observer coverage. It takes a scallop around five years to be large enough to retain in the fishery. Weathervane scallops are the largest in the world and their shells can measure 8 to 10 inches across. Get thee to a DMV! A request by United Fishermen of Alaska to postpone a new state title and registration law that requires fishing vessels, tenders, barges and sport fish boats to register at the Dept. of Motor Vehicles was denied by Department of Administration’s Commissioner Kelley Tshibaka. Here’s the breakdown from the Commercial Fisheries Entry Commission: Undocumented vessels without a valid certificate of documentation issued by the U.S. coast guard must continue to be registered with the DMV and now must also be titled with the DMV. Documented vessels with a valid certificate of documentation issued by the USCG now must also be registered with the DMV. Federally documented vessels are exempt from the new title requirements but are no longer exempt from the DMV registration requirement. Fish movers Alaskans Cora Campbell and Nicole Kimball have been named to the North Pacific Fishery Management Council by the U.S. Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross. The council oversees over 25 Alaska fisheries from three to 200 miles from shore. Campbell is a former ADFG Commissioner and current CEO of Silver Bay Seafoods, a company started by fishermen in Sitka in 2007 that has grown to become one of Alaska’s largest seafood companies. Kimball served for many years as federal fisheries coordinator for ADFG and is currently vice president of Pacific Seafood Processors Association that has represented Alaska seafood companies since 1914. Both will serve three-year terms that begin on Aug. 11. Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Vessel owners scramble to comply with new registration law

A well-intended new Alaska law has gone awry from a botched rollout that has turned thousands of Alaskan fishing vessel, tender, barge and sport fish operators into lawbreakers. Since the start of 2019, all vessels longer than 24 feet are required to be registered with the state at a Department of Motor Vehicles office. Previously, vessels that were documented with the U.S. Coast Guard were not also required to register with the state. The registration costs $24 and is good for three years. “You need to get down to the DMV whether you’re documented or not,” explained Frances Leach, executive director of United Fishermen of Alaska. “If you’re documented you have to register, and if you’re not documented, you have to register and get a title.” The new rule stems from Senate Bill 92, the Derelict Vessels Act introduced last year by Sen. Peter Micciche, R-Soldotna, and passed by the Legislature. It is intended to help harbormasters and others track down owners of abandoned vessels. But virtually no mariners know about the new registration requirement. “We found out about it from DMV personnel in Haines who told one of our gillnetters and he told me, and we both called the troopers and they didn’t know anything about it,” said fisherman Max Worhatch of Petersburg. “Later they got back to us and said it was indeed the law.” Worhatch, who is executive director of United Southeast Alaska Gillnetters, said he’s directed queries to the departments of Administration and Public Safety. “Why weren’t we notified?” he asked. “Nobody found out about this and nobody would’ve found out about this if we hadn’t alerted people. There was no public notice, nothing.” The new law states that a derelict vessel prevention program shall, to the extent that general funds are available, establish education and community outreach programs. But the only outreach is coming from fishermen’s groups, said UFA’s Leach in a June 18 letter to Department of Administration Commissioner Kelly Tshibaka. “Since becoming aware of this new law in late May, UFA has been working with the Department of Motor Vehicles and State Wildlife Troopers to understand how they intend to implement the requirements of the law,” the letter says. “We have notified thousands of fishermen of the law’s requirements through emails and social media posts. As far as we can tell, the commercial fishing industry, spearheaded by UFA, is the only sector actively working to inform commercial fishermen of the new requirements, even though this affects thousands of non-commercial fishing boat owners around the state. Who is informing them?” It adds,“As fishermen attempt to comply with the law’s requirements they are discovering that many DMV offices are not ready to deal with the onslaught of this new bill.” Leach and Worhatch also point out that requiring vessel registration at a DMV adds an unnecessary layer of bureaucracy and is “reinventing the wheel.” “All the information on the DMV registration is available on a public database website at the Commercial Fisheries Entry Commission website. Everything,” said Worhatch. UFA, which represents 36 fishing groups, requested a one-year delay of the law “until all state agencies are better prepared and trained and adequate public notice and education are given prior to it going into effect.” That has the support of Representative Jonathan Kreiss-Tomkins, D-Sitka. “Running the DMV gauntlet is the last thing fishermen need to be thinking about as salmon season heats up,” he wrote by email. Kreiss-Tomkins voted against the new law, saying he was concerned that the bill, albeit well intentioned and addressing all too real a problem, would create more paperwork than it would solutions. “The fear about paperwork headaches is proving all too real,” he said, adding that it “makes heaps of sense” for the existing CFEC database to do “double duty” and relieve the DMV of those headaches. “If sound legislation will be forthcoming to this end, I’ll certainly support it,” he said. As to the botched rollout, Kreiss-Tomkins said: “There seems to be critical mass concern. Everyone — the fishermen, the agencies — is climbing a learning curve, so to some extent it’s understandable. I just hope that this recent attention can help everyone get on the same sheet of music.” Naknek does nets Fishing net recycling is expanding to Naknek. Nicole Baker, founder and operator of Net Your Problem, plans to meet with net menders, processors, gear sellers and landfill managers in early July to begin formulating a program. “These are people who have reached out to me or I have been communicating with over the last year or so,” she said, adding that the recycling start up is set for next summer. Baker, who is in Dillingham for three weeks taking a class at the University of Washington salmon research camp, also has met with the local Curyung Tribe which has managed a net recycle program at the Dillingham Harbor since 2008. Since 2017, Net Your Problem has shipped more than a half-million pounds of plastic fishing nets from Dutch Harbor and Kodiak for renewed life in Europe. “They grind them up, melt them down and turn them into plastic pellets that they then resell to buyers of recycled plastics who turn them into water bottles, phone cases or whatever they choose,” she said. Other updates: nets are still being taken in at Dutch Harbor and Kodiak has a net drop off deadline this summer of Sept. 1 due to shipping logistics. Petersburg will soon be sending out a container of nets collected by the Petersburg Indian Association. The Haines Friends of Recycling has collected seven nets so far and more are being dropped off at the Net Loft. Juneau will be sending out a container of nets at the end of summer collected by the Recycle Works Group. Fishing changes Fishermen are closest to the changes brought by a warming climate and talking about it is a first step in finding solutions. That’s the thought behind The Nature Conservancy’s second collection of audio stories in its Tidal Change series. “If we are not talking about the problems or the challenges ahead, we’re not going to start tackling them. This is a chance to generate conversation,” said spokesman Dustin Solberg of Cordova. The stories reveal a swirl of emotions. Here’s a sampler: “The environment is changing, undoubtedly. When I first fished there was a lot of ice and now most of the glaciers are receding,” said Leonard Leach of Ketchikan, who has been fishing since 1961. “If this whole warming trend keeps happening my understanding is that jellyfish will really come back and that would be a detriment to our gillnetting and seining.” “The water’s warmer and the fish get confused and they don’t know when they’re supposed to run,” said Lia Cook, who fishes with her family at Bristol Bay. “It really affects the peak and the amount of fish that comes through because there is confusion in the school of when are we supposed to go and spawn and do all these things.” Lauri Rootvik of Dillingham also spoke to the odd run timing at Bristol Bay. “When I was a child it was the 4th of July run and it was pretty predictable. It’s not predictable anymore and it hasn’t been for quite a few years,” she said. “Warm water produces more harmful algae blooms. It’s not something that’s coming, it’s something that we are experiencing,” said Bob Eder, a 45 year veteran of Dungeness crab fishing in Oregon. “In our industry there are people of all different political leanings but I don’t know any fishermen who don’t recognize climate change and the challenges coming.” Katrina Leary grew up at a fishing camp along the Kuskokwim River and called it “magical.” “It’s really emotional when you realize your livelihood is being threatened and your kids might not be able to do this. Fishing really is our life. I couldn’t imagine a summer without fishing and I hope I never have to.” Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

FISH FACTOR: Summer fishing ramps up; gov opposes council’s Pebble letter

Salmon dominates the summer fishing headlines but it’s among many other fisheries going on throughout the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea. Alaska’s salmon season has gotten off to a mixed start, with strong catches in some regions over the past month and dismal hauls in others. Good harvests have continued at the Copper River and more recently throughout Prince William Sound. That’s not been the case at Kodiak, Cook Inlet and Chignik where fishing is off to a very slow start. Trollers are targeting chinook salmon in Southeast, and other salmon fisheries are popping up all over that region. The state research vessel Pandalus is on its way to Port Moller to start sampling ahead of the big sockeye run expected in a few weeks at Bristol Bay. State managers predict a total Alaska salmon catch this year of 213 million fish, 84 percent higher than 2018. In other Alaska fisheries, a lingcod fishery reopened at East Yakutat on June 7 and Southeast’s shrimp beam trawl fishery reopens on July 1 with a 175,000-pound combined harvest of pink and sidestripes. Fishing for Alaska pollock reopened on June 10 in the Bering Sea where a catch this year will top 3 billion pounds. Hundreds of other Bering Sea and Gulf boats also are targeting cod, flounders, rockfish, and myriad other whitefish. Alaska halibut longliners are nearing a catch of 8 million pounds out of a 17 million-pound catch limit. For sablefish, about 10 million pounds has crossed the docks from a 26 million-pound quota. Several summer crab fisheries are coming online. The Dungeness season opens in Southeast Alaska on June 15. State fishery managers will use catch stats from the first seven days to predict the harvest for the season. Last summer’s dungy fishery produced three million pounds. The Aleutian Islands golden king crab fishery also opens on June 15 for a slightly increased catch topping seven million pounds. A red king crab fishery will open at Norton Sound on June 26 for a 147,300-pound harvest. Finally, a wrap up by state managers shows that 19 seiners set a record at Alaska’s largest herring fishery at Togiak in April with a 23,060-ton harvest. Fishermen got just $75 per ton for the roe herring making it worth $1.73 million at the docks. Pebble pushback As the July 1 deadline approaches for public comments on plans for the Pebble mine, the project is getting unprecedented pushback from unexpected people and places, to the ire of Gov. Michael J. Dunleavy’s administration. The City of Kodiak, Aleutians East Borough, North Pacific Fishery Management Council, Trident Seafoods and 53 members of Congress are newly on record to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers opposing the draft environmental impact statement, or DEIS, for the massive copper and gold mine, saying it is flawed, inadequate and leaves more questions than answers. At Kodiak, where more than 500 resident fishermen and tenders work at Bristol Bay, city council members said in a comment letter that there is no discussion in the DEIS of how Pebble affects fisheries beyond the Bay and Cook Inlet. “Any potential negative impacts, release of toxins or damage to the watershed and consequently on the fisheries at Bristol Bay, has the potential to have a profound impact on all our fisheries by damaging the Alaska brand,” said Councilman John Whiddon Likewise, the Aleutians East Borough, representing six communities adjacent to the mine area, commented they were never even invited for consultations, and discussions about impacts to their borough were “non-existent.” Mayor Alvin Osterback’s letter called the project “an avoidable risk” and said the best option is no Pebble mine. Similarly, a comment letter written by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council recommends that the potential impacts of large-scale mining be assessed not only for fish populations, but also “on both the value and reputation of North Pacific Fisheries.” That had the Dunleavy administration calling foul at the recent NPFMC meeting in Sitka. Alaska Department of Fish and Game Deputy Commissioner Rachel Baker entered the state’s formal opposition to the letter, calling the Pebble DEIS “outside the Council’s purview” and “a distraction from the large number of fishery management issues on our agenda,” reported KCAW in Sitka. In Congress, led by US Representative Jared Huffman of California who chairs the committee on water, oceans and wildlife, 53 House Democrats sent a letter last week to the Corps asking them to simply drop the Pebble mine project because it would “destroy thousands of acres of wetlands in Alaska and threaten the most valuable wild salmon fishery in the world.” “We urge the Corps to listen to the tribes, village corporations, commercial fishermen, hunters, anglers, and those whose lives and livelihoods depend on the integrity of the Bristol Bay watershed, and we urge the Corps to deny the permit for the Pebble Mine,” the letter stated. Trident Seafoods, the largest seafood company in the U.S., has sent a letter to Alaska fishermen sharing its comments to the Army Corps that the Pebble mine “poses a significant risk to the many families, businesses and communities that rely on the natural resources of Bristol Bay.” Finally, Sen. Lisa Murkowski’s office in Washington, D.C. is being deluged with hundreds of net corks being sent by Alaskans with messages entreating her to stand with them in opposition to the Pebble Mine. Building blue businesses Seward is the first Alaska community to work with the Alaska Ocean Cluster to jump and grow ocean-based businesses. A first cohort of four early-stage businesses that signed up with AOC’s Blue Pipeline Incubator last October has so far attracted $1.6 million from an investment goal of $2.3 million, 10 times more than anticipated. “They include seafood manufacturing, ocean energy, mariculture and coastal tourism,” said Justin Sternberg, director of the Blue Pipeline Incubator in Seward which is a partnership with the AOC, the City and local Chamber of Commerce, UAF College of Fisheries and Ocean Science, and the Alaska Small Business Development Center. One business also filed a provisional patent on a new technology that won the Invention of the Year award at the University of Alaska/Fairbanks. “It’s a technology that pulls hydrogen out of ocean water that can then be stored as a battery for use later. It also de-acidifies the water,” Sternberg said. “If it proves to be commercially viable it would allow for a mass scale way to produce energy and at the same time reduce the carbon that is in the water creating acidification.” Another Blue Pipeline company was a semi-finalist at the first Alaska Angel Conference last month in Anchorage, which brings investors and business startups together. Sternberg said the cohorts receive mentoring and “MBA level training” that helps them “with the whole suite of starting a business from the idea all the way to the implementation to selling it down the road.” The Incubator also offered ASBDC support to 18 Seward businesses, including two new ones, with eight new jobs created as a result. Sternberg, who also helped launch Alaska’s kelp industry in Kodiak, said AOC collaborators are refining the Blue Pipeline to make sure it “fits the dynamics of entrepreneurship in Alaska communities” as they expand to more regions. The Alaska Ocean Cluster is a project of the Bering Sea Fishermen’s Association. ^ Laine Welch lives in Kodiak. Visit www.alaskafishradio.com or contact [email protected] for information.

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